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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2008-09-16 13:19:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:24:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB10368
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCE(18:0)
DescriptionCE(18:0) is a cholesterol fatty acid ester or simply a cholesterol ester (CE). Cholesterol esters are cholesterol molecules with long-chain fatty acids linked to the hydroxyl group. They are much less polar than free cholesterol and appear to be the preferred form for transport in plasma and for storage. Cholesterol esters do not contribute to membranes but are packed into intracellular lipid particles or lipoprotein particles. Because of the mechanism of synthesis, plasma cholesterol esters tend to contain relatively high proportions of C18 fatty acids. Cholesterol esters are major constituents of the adrenal glands and they also accumulate in the fatty lesions of atherosclerotic plaques. Cholesterol esters are also major constituents of the lipoprotein particles carried in blood (HDL, LDL, VLDL). The cholesterol esters in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are synthesized largely by transfer of fatty acids to cholesterol from position sn-2 (or C-2) of phosphatidylcholine catalyzed by the enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT). The enzyme also promotes the transfer of cholesterol from cells to HDL. As cholesterol esters accumulate in the lipoprotein core, cholesterol is removed from its surface thus promoting the flow of cholesterol from cell membranes into HDL. This in turn leads to morphological changes in HDL, which grow and become spherical. Subsequently, cholesterol esters are transferred to the other lipoprotein fractions LDL and VLDL, a reaction catalyzed by cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Another enzyme, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) synthesizes cholesterol esters from CoA esters of fatty acids and cholesterol. Cholesterol ester hydrolases liberate cholesterol and free fatty acids when required for membrane and lipoprotein formation, and they also provide cholesterol for hormone synthesis in adrenal cells.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Stearoyl-cholesterol
  2. 18:0 Cholesterol ester
  3. CE(18:0)
  4. CE(18:0/0:0)
  5. Cholesterol 1-octadecanoate
  6. Cholesterol 1-octadecanoic acid
  7. Cholesterol 1-stearoate
  8. Cholesterol 1-stearoic acid
  9. Cholesterol Ester(18:0)
  10. Cholesterol Ester(18:0/0:0)
  11. Cholesteryl 1-octadecanoate
  12. Cholesteryl 1-octadecanoic acid
  13. Cholesteryl 1-stearoate
  14. Cholesteryl 1-stearoic acid
Chemical FormulaC45H80O2
Average Molecular Weight653.1155
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight652.615831804
IUPAC Name(2R,5S,15R)-2,15-dimethyl-14-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]tetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-yl octadecanoate
Traditional Name(2R,5S,15R)-2,15-dimethyl-14-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]tetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-yl octadecanoate
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H]1CC[C@]2(C)C3CC[C@]4(C)C(CCC4C3CC=C2C1)[C@H](C)CCCC(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C45H80O2/c1-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-25-43(46)47-38-30-32-44(5)37(34-38)26-27-39-41-29-28-40(36(4)24-22-23-35(2)3)45(41,6)33-31-42(39)44/h26,35-36,38-42H,7-25,27-34H2,1-6H3/t36-,38+,39?,40?,41?,42?,44+,45-/m1/s1
InChI KeyXHRPOTDGOASDJS-GHOVPUJYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassSteroid Esters
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
  • Branched Fatty Acids
  • Carbocyclic Fatty Acids
  • Organic Compounds
  • Triterpenes
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Substituents
  • Bicyclohexane
  • Carboxylic Acid Ester
  • Cyclohexane
  • Cyclohexene
Direct ParentCholesteryl Esters
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Energy source
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.100E-06 g/LALOGPS
logP10.79ALOGPS
logP14.92ChemAxon
logS-8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count23ChemAxon
Refractivity203.41ChemAxon
Polarizability87.99ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified37.50 +/- 2.81 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified59 +/- 3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB027520
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24769460
KEGG Compound IDC02530
BioCyc IDCholesterol-esters
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB10368
Metagene LinkHMDB10368
METLIN ID5898
PubChem Compound53480457
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ekman S, Lundberg B: The transfer of lipids from protein-free lipoprotein models to human fibroblasts in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Sep 25;921(2):347-55. Pubmed: 3651492
  2. Denke MA: Dietary fats, fatty acids, and their effects on lipoproteins. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2006 Nov;8(6):466-71. Pubmed: 17045072
  3. Mensink RP: Effects of stearic acid on plasma lipid and lipoproteins in humans. Lipids. 2005 Dec;40(12):1201-5. Pubmed: 16477803

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Central enzyme in the extracellular metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. Synthesized mainly in the liver and secreted into plasma where it converts cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines (lecithins) to cholesteryl esters and lysophosphatidylcholines on the surface of high and low density lipoproteins (HDLs and LDLs). The cholesterol ester is then transported back to the liver. Has a preference for plasma 16:0-18:2 or 18:O-18:2 phosphatidylcholines. Also produced in the brain by primary astrocytes, and esterifies free cholesterol on nascent APOE-containing lipoproteins secreted from glia and influences cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) APOE- and APOA1 levels. Together with APOE and the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, plays a key role in the maturation of glial-derived, nascent lipoproteins. Required for remodeling high-density lipoprotein particles into their spherical forms.
Gene Name:
LCAT
Uniprot ID:
P04180
Molecular weight:
49577.545
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Crucial for the intracellular hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that have been internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. Important in mediating the effect of LDL (low density lipoprotein) uptake on suppression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and activation of endogenous cellular cholesteryl ester formation.
Gene Name:
LIPA
Uniprot ID:
P38571
Molecular weight:
45418.71
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes fat and vitamin absorption. Acts in concert with pancreatic lipase and colipase for the complete digestion of dietary triglycerides.
Gene Name:
CEL
Uniprot ID:
P19835
Molecular weight:
79666.385
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase. May provide cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes and intestinal mucosa.
Gene Name:
SOAT2
Uniprot ID:
O75908
Molecular weight:
59895.735
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase.
Gene Name:
SOAT1
Uniprot ID:
P35610
Molecular weight:
58130.665
General function:
Involved in cell adhesion
Specific function:
Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma membrane, called caveolae. Facilitates the flux of free and esterified cholesterol between the cell surface and extracellular donors and acceptors, such as HDL and to a lesser extent, apoB-containing lipoproteins and modified lipoproteins. Probably involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, via its phosphatidylserine binding activity. Receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Binding between SCARB1 and E2 was found to be independent of the genotype of the viral isolate. Plays an important role in the uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester
Gene Name:
SCARB1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WTV0
Molecular weight:
60877.4
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether, the penultimate precursor of the pathway for de novo synthesis of platelet-activating factor. May be responsible for cholesterol ester hydrolysis in macrophages, thereby contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. Also involved in organ detoxification by hydrolyzing exogenous organophosphorus compounds. May contribute to cancer pathogenesis by promoting tumor cell migration
Gene Name:
NCEH1
Uniprot ID:
Q6PIU2
Molecular weight:
45807.4