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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-03-24 16:16:36 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:32:28 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0011768
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB11768
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCer(d18:0/24:0)
DescriptionCeramides (N-acylsphingosine) are one of the hydrolysis byproducts of sphingomyelin by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (sphingomyelin phosphorylcholine phosphohydrolase E.C.3.1.4.12) which has been identified in the subcellular fractions of human epidermis (PMID 25935 ) and many other tissues. They can also be synthesized from serine and palmitate in a de novo pathway and are regarded as important cellular signals for inducing apoptosis (PMID 14998372 ). Is key in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
C24DH CerChEBI
Ceramide-1 (sphinganine:n-C24:0)ChEBI
N-(Tetracosanoyl)-sphinganineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC42H85NO3
Average Molecular Weight652.1292
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight651.652945591
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R)-1,3-dihydroxyoctadecan-2-yl]tetracosanamide
Traditional NameC24DH cer
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)[C@H](O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C42H85NO3/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-26-28-30-32-34-36-38-42(46)43-40(39-44)41(45)37-35-33-31-29-27-25-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2/h40-41,44-45H,3-39H2,1-2H3,(H,43,46)/t40-,41+/m0/s1
InChI KeyBPLYVSYSBPLDOA-WVILEFPPSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ceramides. These are lipid molecules containing a sphingosine in which the amine group is linked to a fatty acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassCeramides
Direct ParentCeramides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ceramide
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.3e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP10.25ALOGPS
logP14.63ChemAxon
logS-7.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.034ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.56 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count39ChemAxon
Refractivity201.62 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability90.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0000009000-9574b870066ad6a24b9dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-0050009000-26249c0203b2883e2fd0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00lr-0090005000-46bc4fc32af3616dbdb0View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.22 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028438
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4446690
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5283577
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID52961
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Bowser PA, Gray GM: Sphingomyelinase in pig and human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Jun;70(6):331-5. [PubMed:25935 ]
  2. Tserng KY, Griffin RL: Ceramide metabolite, not intact ceramide molecule, may be responsible for cellular toxicity. Biochem J. 2004 Jun 15;380(Pt 3):715-22. [PubMed:14998372 ]
  3. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  4. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  5. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  6. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  7. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  8. Ghosh S, Strum JC, Bell RM: Lipid biochemistry: functions of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in cellular signaling. FASEB J. 1997 Jan;11(1):45-50. [PubMed:9034165 ]
  9. Pruett ST, Bushnev A, Hagedorn K, Adiga M, Haynes CA, Sullards MC, Liotta DC, Merrill AH Jr: Biodiversity of sphingoid bases ("sphingosines") and related amino alcohols. J Lipid Res. 2008 Aug;49(8):1621-39. doi: 10.1194/jlr.R800012-JLR200. Epub 2008 May 21. [PubMed:18499644 ]
  10. Hannun YA, Obeid LM: Ceramide: an intracellular signal for apoptosis. Trends Biochem Sci. 1995 Feb;20(2):73-7. [PubMed:7701566 ]
  11. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  12. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 66 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Hydrolyze 1-acyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) and 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-platelet-activating factor). The physiological substrate seems to be Lyso-PAF.
Gene Name:
SMPD2
Uniprot ID:
O60906
Molecular weight:
47645.29
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bidirectional lipid cholinephosphotransferase capable of converting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and vice versa. Direction is dependent on the relative concentrations of DAG and ceramide as phosphocholine acceptors. Directly and specifically recognizes the choline head group on the substrate. Also requires two fatty chains on the choline-P donor molecule in order to be recognized efficiently as a substrate. Does not function strictly as a SM synthase. Suppresses BAX-mediated apoptosis and also prevents cell death in response to stimuli such as hydrogen peroxide, osmotic stress, elevated temperature and exogenously supplied sphingolipids. May protect against cell death by reversing the stress-inducible increase in levels of proapoptotic ceramide. Required for cell growth
Gene Name:
SGMS1
Uniprot ID:
Q86VZ5
Molecular weight:
49207.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase that catalyzes the conversion of glucosylceramide to free glucose and ceramide. Involved in sphingomyelin generation and prevention of glycolipid accumulation. May also catalyze the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides, however, the relevance of such activity is unclear in vivo.
Gene Name:
GBA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCG7
Molecular weight:
104648.13
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid at an optimal pH of 8.0. Has a highly restricted substrate specificity for the natural stereoisomer of ceramide with D-erythro-sphingosine but not D-ribo-phytosphingosine or D-erythro-dihydrosphingosine as a backbone. May have a role in regulating the levels of bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, as well as complex sphingolipids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACER1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TDN7
Molecular weight:
31095.165
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first glycosylation step in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, the transfer of glucose to ceramide. May also serve as a "flippase".
Gene Name:
UGCG
Uniprot ID:
Q16739
Molecular weight:
44853.255
General function:
Involved in receptor signaling protein activity
Specific function:
Couples the p55 TNF-receptor (TNF-R55 / TNFR1) to neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMASE). Specifically binds to the N- smase activation domain of TNF-R55. May regulate ceramide production by N-SMASE
Gene Name:
NSMAF
Uniprot ID:
Q92636
Molecular weight:
104371.5
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes specifically the phosphorylation of ceramide to form ceramide 1-phosphate. Acts efficiently on natural and analog ceramides (C6, C8, C16 ceramides, and C8-dihydroceramide), to a lesser extent on C2-ceramide and C6-dihydroceramide, but not on other lipids, such as various sphingosines. Binds phosphoinositides
Gene Name:
CERK
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCT0
Molecular weight:
59977.0
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid. Unsaturated long-chain ceramides are the best substrates, saturated long-chain ceramides and unsaturated very long-chain ceramides are good substrates, whereas saturated very long-chain ceramides and short-chain ceramides were poor substrates. The substrate preference is D-erythro-C(18:1)-, C(20:1)-, C(20:4)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(16:0)-, C(18:0), C(20:0)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(24:1)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(12:0)-ceramide, D-erythro-C(14:0)-ceramides > D-erythro-C(24:0)-ceramide > D-erythro-C(6:0)-ceramide. Inhibits the maturation of protein glycosylation in the Golgi complex, including that of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and of LAMP1, by increasing the levels of sphingosine. Inhibits cell adhesion by reducing the level of ITGB1 in the cell surface. May have a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis that seems to depend on the balance between sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
ACER2
Uniprot ID:
Q5QJU3
Molecular weight:
31308.85
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide and phosphocholine. Ceramide mediates numerous cellular functions, such as apoptosis and growth arrest, and is capable of regulating these 2 cellular events independently. Also hydrolyzes sphingosylphosphocholine. Regulates the cell cycle by acting as a growth suppressor in confluent cells. Probably acts as a regulator of postnatal development and participates in bone and dentin mineralization.
Gene Name:
SMPD3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY59
Molecular weight:
71080.1

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 66 proteins in total.