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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14583
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTrimethoprim
DescriptionA pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to pyrimethamine. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by sulfonamides and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. Trimethoprim resistance has been reported. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidineChEBI
5-[(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-2,4-pyrimidinediamineChEBI
ProloprimChEBI
TrimpexChEBI
CO-TrimoxazoleHMDB
Chemical FormulaC14H18N4O3
Average Molecular Weight290.3177
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight290.137890462
IUPAC Name5-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine
Traditional Nametrimethoprim
CAS Registry Number738-70-5
SMILES
COC1=CC(CC2=CN=C(N)N=C2N)=CC(OC)=C1OC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C14H18N4O3/c1-19-10-5-8(6-11(20-2)12(10)21-3)4-9-7-17-14(16)18-13(9)15/h5-7H,4H2,1-3H3,(H4,15,16,17,18)
InChI KeyInChIKey=IEDVJHCEMCRBQM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anisoles. These are organic compounds containing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentAnisoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anisole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
  • Anti-Infectives
  • Antimalarials
  • Folic Acid Antagonists
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point199 - 203 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility6.15e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP0.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.61 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.26ALOGPS
logP1.28ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area105.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity81.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.71 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00440
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00440
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00440
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5376
KEGG Compound IDC01965
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrimethoprim
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14583
Metagene LinkHMDB14583
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5578
PDB IDTOP
ChEBI ID45924
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM: Limitations of and indications for the use of co-trimoxazole. J Chemother. 1994 Feb;6(1):3-11. [8071675 ]
  2. Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM: Reassessment of the rationale for the combinations of sulphonamides with diaminopyrimidines. J Chemother. 1993 Dec;5(6):465-9. [8195839 ]
  3. Johnson JR, Manges AR, O'Bryan TT, Riley LW: A disseminated multidrug-resistant clonal group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29;359(9325):2249-51. [12103291 ]
  4. Felmingham D, Reinert RR, Hirakata Y, Rodloff A: Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the PROTEKT surveillance study, and compatative in vitro activity of the ketolide, telithromycin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002 Sep;50 Suppl S1:25-37. [12239226 ]
  5. Bean DC, Livermore DM, Papa I, Hall LM: Resistance among Escherichia coli to sulphonamides and other antimicrobials now little used in man. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Nov;56(5):962-4. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [16150859 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular weight:
21452.61
References
  1. Laskowska E, Kuczynska-Wisnik D, Bak M, Lipinska B: Trimethoprim induces heat shock proteins and protein aggregation in E. coli cells. Curr Microbiol. 2003 Oct;47(4):286-9. [14629008 ]
  2. Floris-Moore MA, Amodio-Groton MI, Catalano MT: Adverse reactions to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in AIDS. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Dec;37(12):1810-3. [14632594 ]
  3. Rosowsky A, Fu H, Chan DC, Queener SF: Synthesis of 2,4-diamino-6-[2'-O-(omega-carboxyalkyl)oxydibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl]methylpteridine s as potent and selective inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium avium dihydrofolate reductase. J Med Chem. 2004 May 6;47(10):2475-85. [15115391 ]
  4. Nahimana A, Rabodonirina M, Bille J, Francioli P, Hauser PM: Mutations of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydrofolate reductase associated with failure of prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Nov;48(11):4301-5. [15504856 ]
  5. Barrow EW, Bourne PC, Barrow WW: Functional cloning of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase and confirmation of natural resistance to trimethoprim. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4643-9. [15561838 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in thymidylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name:
TYMS
Uniprot ID:
P04818
Molecular weight:
35715.65
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Gamarro F, Yu PL, Zhao J, Edman U, Greene PJ, Santi D: Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase: gene isolation and expression and characterization of the enzyme. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1995 Jun;72(1-2):11-22. [8538681 ]
  4. Rosowsky A, Papoulis AT, Forsch RA, Queener SF: Synthesis and antiparasitic and antitumor activity of 2, 4-diamino-6-(arylmethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline analogues of piritrexim. J Med Chem. 1999 Mar 25;42(6):1007-17. [10090784 ]
  5. Reche P, Arrebola R, Santi DV, Gonzalez-Pacanowska D, Ruiz-Perez LM: Expression and characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase domain. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Feb-Mar;76(1-2):175-85. [8920005 ]
  6. Oefner C, Parisi S, Schulz H, Lociuro S, Dale GE: Inhibitory properties and X-ray crystallographic study of the binding of AR-101, AR-102 and iclaprim in ternary complexes with NADPH and dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009 Aug;65(Pt 8):751-7. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [19622858 ]
  7. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. [12387747 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [11602674 ]