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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15200
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlipizide
DescriptionGlipizide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized. [PubChem]Sulfonylureas likely bind to ATP-sensitive potassium-channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane. Depolarization stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels, raising intracellular concentrations of calcium ions, which induces the secretion, or exocytosis, of insulin.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Cyclohexyl-3-({p-[2-(5-methylpyrazinecarboxamido)ethyl]phenyl}sulfonyl)ureaChEBI
AldiabChEBI
CP 28,720ChEBI
CP 28720ChEBI
CP-28,720ChEBI
DigrinChEBI
DipazideChEBI
GlibeneseChEBI
GlibetinChEBI
GlicanChEBI
GlidiabChEBI
GlipidChEBI
GlipizidaChEBI
GlipizidumChEBI
gluco-RiteChEBI
GlucolipChEBI
GlucotrolChEBI
GlucozideChEBI
GlupitelChEBI
GlupizideChEBI
GlydeChEBI
GlydiazinamideChEBI
K 4024ChEBI
MelizideChEBI
MindiabChEBI
MinidabChEBI
MinidiabChEBI
MinodiabChEBI
N-{4-[beta-(5-methylpyrazine-2-carboxamido)ethyl]benzenesulphonyl}-n'-cyclohexylureaChEBI
NapizideChEBI
OzidiaChEBI
SucrazideChEBI
Chemical FormulaC21H27N5O4S
Average Molecular Weight445.535
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight445.178375067
IUPAC NameN-[2-(4-{[(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)ethyl]-5-methylpyrazine-2-carboxamide
Traditional Nameglipizide
CAS Registry Number29094-61-9
SMILES
CC1=CN=C(C=N1)C(=O)NCCC1=CC=C(C=C1)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)NC1CCCCC1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H27N5O4S/c1-15-13-24-19(14-23-15)20(27)22-12-11-16-7-9-18(10-8-16)31(29,30)26-21(28)25-17-5-3-2-4-6-17/h7-10,13-14,17H,2-6,11-12H2,1H3,(H,22,27)(H2,25,26,28)
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZJJXGWJIGJFDTL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentBenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Pyrazinecarboxamide
  • Pyrazine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Phenethylamine
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Pyrazine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point208 - 209 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.64e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.016 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.83ALOGPS
logP1.43ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.059ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area130.15 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity115.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01067
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01067
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01067
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3359
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlipizide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15200
Metagene LinkHMDB15200
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3478
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID239286
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular weight:
57619.6
References
  1. Scarsi M, Podvinec M, Roth A, Hug H, Kersten S, Albrecht H, Schwede T, Meyer UA, Rucker C: Sulfonylureas and glinides exhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity: a combined virtual screening and biological assay approach. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;71(2):398-406. Epub 2006 Nov 2. [17082235 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Putative subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP). Regulator of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and insulin release
Gene Name:
ABCC8
Uniprot ID:
Q09428
Molecular weight:
177006.4
References
  1. Gribble FM, Ashcroft FM: Sulfonylurea sensitivity of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels from beta cells and extrapancreatic tissues. Metabolism. 2000 Oct;49(10 Suppl 2):3-6. [11078468 ]
  2. Harrower A: Gliclazide modified release: from once-daily administration to 24-hour blood glucose control. Metabolism. 2000 Oct;49(10 Suppl 2):7-11. [11078469 ]
  3. Lawrence CL, Proks P, Rodrigo GC, Jones P, Hayabuchi Y, Standen NB, Ashcroft FM: Gliclazide produces high-affinity block of KATP channels in mouse isolated pancreatic beta cells but not rat heart or arterial smooth muscle cells. Diabetologia. 2001 Aug;44(8):1019-25. [11484080 ]
  4. Reimann F, Ashcroft FM, Gribble FM: Structural basis for the interference between nicorandil and sulfonylurea action. Diabetes. 2001 Oct;50(10):2253-9. [11574406 ]
  5. Proks P, Reimann F, Green N, Gribble F, Ashcroft F: Sulfonylurea stimulation of insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2002 Dec;51 Suppl 3:S368-76. [12475777 ]