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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15273
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDoxepin
DescriptionDoxepin hydrochloride is a dibenzoxepin-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, doxepin does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, doxepin exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as doxepin and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Doxepin has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than amitriptyline. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Doxepin may be used to treat depression and insomnia. Unlabeled indications include chronic and neuropathic pain, and anxiety. Doxepin may also be used as a second line agent to treat idiopathic urticaria.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Dibenz[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamineChEBI
DoxepineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC19H21NO
Average Molecular Weight279.3761
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight279.162314299
IUPAC Namedimethyl(3-{9-oxatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(15),3,5,7,11,13-hexaen-2-ylidene}propyl)amine
Traditional Namedoxepin
CAS Registry Number1668-19-5
SMILES
[H]C(CCN(C)C)=C1C2=CC=CC=C2COC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H21NO/c1-20(2)13-7-11-17-16-9-4-3-8-15(16)14-21-19-12-6-5-10-18(17)19/h3-6,8-12H,7,13-14H2,1-2H3/b17-11-
InChI KeyInChIKey=ODQWQRRAPPTVAG-BOPFTXTBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzoxepines. These are compounds containing a dibenzoxepine moiety, which consists of two benzene connected by an oxazepine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzoxepines
Sub ClassDibenzoxepines
Direct ParentDibenzoxepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzoxepine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-anxiety Agents
  • Antidepressants
  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
  • Antipruritics
  • Histamine Antagonists
  • Norepinephrine-Reuptake Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point184 - 186 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.19e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.032 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.08ALOGPS
logP3.84ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity98.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.47 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01142
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01142
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01142
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID580850
KEGG Compound IDC06971
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDoxepin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15273
Metagene LinkHMDB15273
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound667468
PDB IDD7V
ChEBI ID36691
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Muller G, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Oct;12(7):571-80. [12360109 ]
  2. Virtanen R, Iisalo E, Irjala K: Protein binding of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1982 Aug;51(2):159-64. [7113722 ]
  3. Virtanen R, Scheinin M, Iisalo E: Single dose pharmacokinetics of doxepin in healthy volunteers. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1980 Nov;47(5):371-6. [7293791 ]
  4. Negro-Alvarez JM, Carreno-Rojo A, Funes-Vera E, Garcia-Canovas A, Abellan-Aleman AF, Rubio del Barrio R: Pharmacologic therapy for urticaria. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1997 Jan-Feb;25(1):36-51. [9111875 ]
  5. Sansone RA, Sansone LA: Pain, pain, go away: antidepressants and pain management. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 Dec;5(12):16-9. [19724772 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Muller G, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Oct;12(7):571-80. [12360109 ]
  2. Hartter S, Tybring G, Friedberg T, Weigmann H, Hiemke C: The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharm Res. 2002 Jul;19(7):1034-7. [12180536 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Muller G, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Oct;12(7):571-80. [12360109 ]
  2. Hartter S, Tybring G, Friedberg T, Weigmann H, Hiemke C: The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharm Res. 2002 Jul;19(7):1034-7. [12180536 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Szewczuk-Boguslawska M, Kiejna A, Beszlej JA, Orzechowska-Juzwenko K, Milejski P: Doxepin inhibits CYP2D6 activity in vivo. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Jul-Aug;56(4):491-4. [15520506 ]
  2. Grasmader K, Verwohlt PL, Rietschel M, Dragicevic A, Muller M, Hiemke C, Freymann N, Zobel A, Maier W, Rao ML: Impact of polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 on plasma concentrations and clinical effects of antidepressants in a naturalistic clinical setting. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jul;60(5):329-36. Epub 2004 May 28. [15168101 ]
  3. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Muller G, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Oct;12(7):571-80. [12360109 ]
  4. Haritos VS, Ghabrial H, Ahokas JT, Ching MS: Role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the stereospecific metabolism of E- and Z-doxepin. Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Oct;10(7):591-603. [11037801 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Hartter S, Tybring G, Friedberg T, Weigmann H, Hiemke C: The N-demethylation of the doxepin isomers is mainly catalyzed by the polymorphic CYP2C19. Pharm Res. 2002 Jul;19(7):1034-7. [12180536 ]
  2. Haritos VS, Ghabrial H, Ahokas JT, Ching MS: Role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in the stereospecific metabolism of E- and Z-doxepin. Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Oct;10(7):591-603. [11037801 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular weight:
49953.1
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular weight:
40097.7
References
  1. Beil W, Hannemann H, Sewing KF: Interaction of antidepressants and neuroleptics with histamine stimulated parietal cell adenylate cyclase and H+ secretion. Pharmacology. 1988;36(3):198-203. [2897127 ]
  2. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular weight:
54297.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Maj J, Gancarczyk L, Gorszczyk L, Rawlow A: Doxepin as a blocker of central serotonin receptors. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol. 1977 Dec;10(6):318-24. [309138 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular weight:
46106.3
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Maj J, Gancarczyk L, Gorszczyk L, Rawlow A: Doxepin as a blocker of central serotonin receptors. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol. 1977 Dec;10(6):318-24. [309138 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Maj J, Gancarczyk L, Gorszczyk L, Rawlow A: Doxepin as a blocker of central serotonin receptors. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol. 1977 Dec;10(6):318-24. [309138 ]
  3. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Maj J, Gancarczyk L, Gorszczyk L, Rawlow A: Doxepin as a blocker of central serotonin receptors. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol. 1977 Dec;10(6):318-24. [309138 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular weight:
55783.6
References
  1. Tashiro M, Sakurada Y, Iwabuchi K, Mochizuki H, Kato M, Aoki M, Funaki Y, Itoh M, Iwata R, Wong DF, Yanai K: Central effects of fexofenadine and cetirizine: measurement of psychomotor performance, subjective sleepiness, and brain histamine H1-receptor occupancy using 11C-doxepin positron emission tomography. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;44(8):890-900. [15286093 ]
  2. Tran VT, Lebovitz R, Toll L, Snyder SH: [3H]doxepin interactions with histamine H1-receptors and other sites in guinea pig and rat brain homogenates. Eur J Pharmacol. 1981 Apr 9;70(4):501-9. [7238574 ]
  3. Kano M, Fukudo S, Tashiro A, Utsumi A, Tamura D, Itoh M, Iwata R, Tashiro M, Mochizuki H, Funaki Y, Kato M, Hongo M, Yanai K: Decreased histamine H1 receptor binding in the brain of depressed patients. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug;20(3):803-10. [15255990 ]
  4. Claro E, Arbones L, Garcia A, Picatoste F: Phosphoinositide hydrolysis mediated by histamine H1-receptors in rat brain cortex. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 16;123(2):187-96. [3011460 ]
  5. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
  6. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  7. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
  8. Singh H, Becker PM: Novel therapeutic usage of low-dose doxepin hydrochloride. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Aug;16(8):1295-305. [17685877 ]
  9. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
  10. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
  3. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular weight:
56835.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
  3. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular weight:
60462.2
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
  3. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular weight:
49521.6
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular weight:
66127.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Ehlert FJ, Delen FM, Yun SH, Liem HA: The interaction of amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine and their N-methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives with subtypes of muscarinic receptors in brain and heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Apr;253(1):13-9. [2329499 ]
  3. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular weight:
51420.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
  3. Ehlert FJ, Delen FM, Yun SH, Liem HA: The interaction of amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine and their N-methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives with subtypes of muscarinic receptors in brain and heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Apr;253(1):13-9. [2329499 ]
  4. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Ehlert FJ, Delen FM, Yun SH, Liem HA: The interaction of amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine and their N-methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives with subtypes of muscarinic receptors in brain and heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Apr;253(1):13-9. [2329499 ]
  3. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular weight:
53048.7
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Ehlert FJ, Delen FM, Yun SH, Liem HA: The interaction of amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine and their N-methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives with subtypes of muscarinic receptors in brain and heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Apr;253(1):13-9. [2329499 ]
  3. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular weight:
60073.2
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Ehlert FJ, Delen FM, Yun SH, Liem HA: The interaction of amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine and their N-methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives with subtypes of muscarinic receptors in brain and heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Apr;253(1):13-9. [2329499 ]
  3. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Goncalo M, Almeida L, Poiares-Baptista A, Teixeira F: Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990;4(2):147-58. [2141000 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [12438524 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  2. Stahl SM: Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines. CNS Spectr. 2008 Dec;13(12):1027-38. [19179941 ]