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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-12-04 19:09:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000235
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00235
Metabolite Identification
Common NameThiamine
DescriptionThiamine, also known as aneurin or vitamin B1, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone. Natural derivatives of thiamine phosphate, such as thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), that act as coenzymes in addition to their each unique biological functions. There are five known natural thiamine phosphate derivatives: thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and the recently discovered adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), and adenosine thiamine diphosphate. Thiamine is a drug which is used for the treatment of thiamine and niacin deficiency states, korsakov's alcoholic psychosis, wernicke-korsakov syndrome, delirium, and peripheral neuritis. Thiamine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Thiamine has been shown to inhibit this effect of glucose on endothelial cells. Thiamine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans, thiamine is involved in the metabolic disorder called the 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency pathway. Thiamine is a bitter tasting compound. Outside of the human body, Thiamine is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as spread, leavening agents, and meat bouillons and in a lower concentration in cow milks, sharks, and vegetable juices. Thiamine has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as chewing gums, walnuts, celery leaves, ascidians, and waters. This could make thiamine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Thiamine is a potentially toxic compound. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation may also promote atherosclerosis. Thiamine is a vitamin with antioxidant, erythropoietic, cognition-and mood-modulatory, antiatherosclerotic, putative ergogenic, and detoxification activities. The neuronal death is associated with increased free radical production, suggesting that oxidative stress may play an important early role in brain damage associated with thiamine deficiency. Oral mouse LD50 = 8224 mg/kg, oral rat LD50 = 3710 mg/kg.
Structure
Data?1575486591
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-(4-AMINO-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-4-methyl-thiazol-3-iumChEBI
AneurinChEBI
Antiberiberi factorChEBI
ThiaminChEBI
Thiamine(1+) ionChEBI
ThiaminiumChEBI
Vitamin b1ChEBI
Apate dropsHMDB
BeatineHMDB
BedomeHMDB
BegiolanHMDB
BenervaHMDB
BequinHMDB
BerinHMDB
Betalin SHMDB
BetaxinHMDB
BethiazineHMDB
BeuionHMDB
BevitexHMDB
BevitineHMDB
BewonHMDB
BiamineHMDB
BithiaminHMDB
BiunoHMDB
BivatinHMDB
BivitaHMDB
Cernevit-12HMDB
ClotiaminaHMDB
EskapenHMDB
EskaphenHMDB
HybeeHMDB
Lixa-betaHMDB
MetabolinHMDB
SlowtenHMDB
THDHMDB
ThiadoxineHMDB
ThiaminalHMDB
ThiamolHMDB
ThiavitHMDB
TiamidonHMDB
TiaminalHMDB
TrophiteHMDB
Vetalin SHMDB
VIBHMDB
VinothiamHMDB
VitaneuronHMDB
Mononitrate, thiamineMeSH, HMDB
Thiamine mononitrateMeSH, HMDB
Vitamin b 1MeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H17N4OS
Average Molecular Weight265.355
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight265.112306876
IUPAC Name3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium
Traditional Namethiamine
CAS Registry Number70-16-6
SMILES
CC1=C(CCO)SC=[N+]1CC1=CN=C(C)N=C1N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H17N4OS/c1-8-11(3-4-17)18-7-16(8)6-10-5-14-9(2)15-12(10)13/h5,7,17H,3-4,6H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)/q+1
InChI KeyJZRWCGZRTZMZEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentThiamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Thiamine
  • 4,5-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Azole
  • Thiazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point248 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility500 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.015 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.91 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity73.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00e9-3890000000-9f8b525433ab279ad512JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9442000000-05ab93d3afb7b6f538e9JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000i-0109000000-48864f31ba475645654bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-05o1-9200000000-2ec0f3e9e364cffde16eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0aou-9000000000-0184506492d9f5b68b97JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0930000000-ecf71c75bdea859139d5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d9113fdc633fb1ccbb5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4a8016299623af0c3027JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-773912c9f325c419c77dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0390000000-95f3ca57c95542bdc7e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-e079d1fc1e06396dc524JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-ebb16d4f204f291b9a3aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00e9-4900000000-ad4d4779d76b9edb7ec5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001i-9600000000-b631eed5be831527fc17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-50f2f613f576814eb627JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-002b-0900000000-2f184bbfec6bc0ef00c6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-35bc744495a2570a565fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-d8a7ac327273c32b4524JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-ca80ef6513c61be5b5e9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0190000000-183af2449d1439af9825JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-2230ebc7c6b73192c26fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-7920000000-75670df9647a475ca92cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-3090000000-d0ff9a733629a86b75c7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03dj-3690000000-db3f204af490d7e1722eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0005-9000000000-5196f2b4daab995967bfJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Placenta
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 (0.14-0.79) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.16 (0.06-0.41) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.096 +/- 0.018 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12 (0.094-0.280) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.050-0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.006 (0.005 - 0.007) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.141 +/- 0.0543 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0487 +/- 0.00275 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.247 +/- 0.006 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.01 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.22 (0.20-0.60) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.132 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0283 +/- 0.0191 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0511 +/- 0.0255 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.035 +/- 0.006 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
Hemodialysis
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.18 +/- 0.066 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothFriedreich's ataxia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17 +/- 0.051 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothOlivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.115 +/- 0.0464 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothFriedreich's ataxia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0902 +/- 0.0411 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothOlivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.02 +/- 0.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Alcoholism
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.01 +/- 0.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Alcoholism
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.09 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedOlivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAutosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguena details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1 +/- 0.01 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedFriedreich's ataxia details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hemodialysis
  1. Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Chen TW, Huang TP: Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Nov;38(5):941-7. [PubMed:11684545 ]
Friedreich's ataxia
  1. Pedraza OL, Botez MI: Thiamine status in inherited degenerative ataxias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Feb;55(2):136-7. [PubMed:1538220 ]
  2. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Olivopontocerebral atrophy
  1. Pedraza OL, Botez MI: Thiamine status in inherited degenerative ataxias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Feb;55(2):136-7. [PubMed:1538220 ]
  2. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Alcoholism
  1. Dastur DK, Santhadevi N, Quadros EV, Avari FC, Wadia NH, Desai MN, Bharucha EP: The B-vitamins in malnutrition with alcoholism. A model of intervitamin relationships. Br J Nutr. 1976 Sep;36(2):143-59. [PubMed:182198 ]
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
  1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00152
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008424
KNApSAcK IDC00000775
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00378
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkThiamine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1130
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18385
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDTHM
References
Synthesis ReferenceSugimoto, Hirohiko; Ishiba, Teruyuki; Sato, Tomohiro; Nakai, Hiroshi; Hirai, Kentaro. Novel S-alkylation products from "isolated thiamin ylide" via thiaminium neothiaminthiolate ion pair. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1990), 55(2), 467-70.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Bellazzi R, Guglielmann R, Ironi L, Patrini C: A hybrid input-output approach to model metabolic systems: an application to intracellular thiamine kinetics. J Biomed Inform. 2001 Aug;34(4):221-48. [PubMed:11977806 ]
  2. Pietrzak I, Baczyk K: Comparison of the thiamine level in blood and erythrocyte transketolase activity in hemodialyzed and nondialyzed patients during recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1997;23(3-6):277-82. [PubMed:9387133 ]
  3. Singleton CK, Martin PR: Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization. Curr Mol Med. 2001 May;1(2):197-207. [PubMed:11899071 ]
  4. Sato Y, Nakagawa M, Higuchi I, Osame M, Naito E, Oizumi K: Mitochondrial myopathy and familial thiamine deficiency. Muscle Nerve. 2000 Jul;23(7):1069-75. [PubMed:10883001 ]
  5. Mastrogiacoma F, Bettendorff L, Grisar T, Kish SJ: Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996 May;39(5):585-91. [PubMed:8619543 ]
  6. Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Hernanz A, Fernandez-Vivancos E, Medina S, de Bustos F, Gomez-Escalonilla C, Sayed Y: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of thiamine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2002 Jul;109(7-8):1035-44. [PubMed:12111441 ]
  7. Pietrzak I, Baczyk K, Kubiak W: Recombinant human erythropoietin administration improves thiamine content in blood and erythrocytes transketolase activity in pre-dialyzed patients. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 1994;48 Suppl 3:29-37. [PubMed:8192530 ]
  8. Valerio G, Franzese A, Poggi V, Patrini C, Laforenza U, Tenore A: Lipophilic thiamine treatment in long-standing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol. 1999 Jun;36(1-2):73-6. [PubMed:10436256 ]
  9. Herve C, Beyne P, Delacoux E: Determination of thiamine and its phosphate esters in human erythrocytes by high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Mar 4;653(2):217-20. [PubMed:8205249 ]
  10. Losa R, Sierra MI, Fernandez A, Blanco D, Buesa JM: Determination of thiamine and its phosphorylated forms in human plasma, erythrocytes and urine by HPLC and fluorescence detection: a preliminary study on cancer patients. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Apr 29;37(5):1025-9. [PubMed:15862682 ]
  11. Pietrzak I, Baczyk K, Mlynarczyk M: [The influence of intermittent peritoneal dialysis on free and total thiamine concentration in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with end stage renal disease]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1994;92 Spec No:31-6. [PubMed:7731897 ]
  12. Dutta B, Huang W, Molero M, Kekuda R, Leibach FH, Devoe LD, Ganapathy V, Prasad PD: Cloning of the human thiamine transporter, a member of the folate transporter family. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 5;274(45):31925-9. [PubMed:10542220 ]
  13. Pedraza OL, Botez MI: Thiamine status in inherited degenerative ataxias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Feb;55(2):136-7. [PubMed:1538220 ]
  14. Vinogradov VV, Tarasov IuA, Tishin VS, Bogdanovich VI, Spas VV: [Thiamine prevention of the corticosteroid reaction afer surgery]. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk). 1981 May-Jun;27(3):11-6. [PubMed:7291135 ]
  15. Tanaka T, Sohmiya K, Kono T, Terasaki F, Horie R, Ohkaru Y, Muramatsu M, Takai S, Miyazaki M, Kitaura Y: Thiamine attenuates the hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in CD36-defective SHR: uncoupling of glucose oxidation from cellular entry accompanied with enhanced protein O-GlcNAcylation in CD36 deficiency. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 May;299(1-2):23-35. [PubMed:16645728 ]
  16. Bettendorff L, Mastrogiacomo F, Kish SJ, Grisar T: Thiamine, thiamine phosphates, and their metabolizing enzymes in human brain. J Neurochem. 1996 Jan;66(1):250-8. [PubMed:8522961 ]
  17. Lee DC, Chu J, Satz W, Silbergleit R: Low plasma thiamine levels in elder patients admitted through the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Oct;7(10):1156-9. [PubMed:11015250 ]
  18. Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, Seligmann H, Shefi M, Peleg E, Rosenthal T, Motro M, Halkin H, Ezra D: Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med. 1995 May;98(5):485-90. [PubMed:7733128 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in thiamin diphosphokinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate. Can also catalyze the phosphorylation of pyrithiamine to pyrithiamine pyrophosphate.
Gene Name:
TPK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3S4
Molecular weight:
27265.05
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Thiamine → Adenosine monophosphate + Thiamine pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a two-carbon ketol group from a ketose donor to an aldose acceptor, via a covalent intermediate with the cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate.
Gene Name:
TKT
Uniprot ID:
P29401
Molecular weight:
67876.95
General function:
Involved in adenylate cyclase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolase highly specific for thiamine triphosphate (ThTP).
Gene Name:
THTPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BU02
Molecular weight:
25565.685
General function:
Involved in folic acid binding
Specific function:
High-affinity transporter for the intake of thiamine.
Gene Name:
SLC19A2
Uniprot ID:
O60779
Molecular weight:
55399.49
General function:
Involved in folic acid binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC19A2
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z7J1
Molecular weight:
7567.7
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC19A2
Uniprot ID:
B0FBR7
Molecular weight:
1539.7
General function:
Involved in folic acid binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC19A2
Uniprot ID:
Q5TIE1
Molecular weight:
51277.0
General function:
Involved in phosphohistidine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits phosphohistidine phosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
PHPT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRX4
Molecular weight:
Not Available