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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:49:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01414
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB60243
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePutrescine
DescriptionPutrescine is a polyamine. Putrescine is related to cadaverine (another polyamine). Both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses. Putrescine and cadaverine are largely responsible for the foul odor of putrefying flesh, but also contribute to the odor of such processes as bad breath and bacterial vaginosis. Putrescine is also found in semen. Putrescine attacks s-adenosyl methionine and converts it to spermidine. Spermidine in turn attacks another s-adenosyl methionine and converts it to spermine. Putrescine is synthesized in small quantities by healthy living cells by the action of ornithine decarboxylase. The polyamines, of which putrescine is one of the simplest, appear to be growth factors necessary for cell division. Putrescine apparently has specific role in skin physiology and neuroprotection. (PMID: 15009201 , 16364196 ). Pharmacological interventions have demonstrated convincingly that a steady supply of polyamines is a prerequisite for cell proliferation to occur. Genetic engineering of polyamine metabolism in transgenic rodents has shown that polyamines play a role in spermatogenesis, skin physiology, promotion of tumorigenesis and organ hypertrophy as well as neuronal protection. Transgenic activation of polyamine catabolism not only profoundly disturbs polyamine homeostasis in most tissues, but also creates a complex phenotype affecting skin, female fertility, fat depots, pancreatic integrity and regenerative growth. Transgenic expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme has suggested that this unique protein may act as a general tumor suppressor. Homozygous deficiency of the key biosynthetic enzymes of the polyamines, ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is not compatible with murine embryogenesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1,4-Butanediamine
  2. 1,4-Butanediammonium
  3. 1,4-Butylenediamine
  4. 1,4-Diaminobutane
  5. 1,4-Tetramethylenediamine
  6. Butylenediamine
  7. Putrescin
  8. Tetramethyldiamine
  9. Tetramethylenediamine
Chemical FormulaC4H12N2
Average Molecular Weight88.1515
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight88.100048394
IUPAC Namebutane-1,4-diamine
Traditional Nameputrescine
CAS Registry Number110-60-1
SMILES
NCCCCN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H12N2/c5-3-1-2-4-6/h1-6H2
InChI KeyKIDHWZJUCRJVML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
ClassAlkylamines
Sub ClassPolyamines
Other Descriptors
  • Alkylamines
  • Biogenic amines(KEGG)
  • alkane-alpha,omega-diamine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentPolyamines
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Methane metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
  • RNA component
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point27.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.70SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility236 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.98ALOGPS
logP-0.85ChemAxon
logS0.43ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.51ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.04ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity27.38ChemAxon
Polarizability11.07ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.214 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.05 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.23 +/- 0.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified374.6 +/- 215.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12.7 +/- 13.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20.6 +/- 14.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified34.93 +/- 24.67 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified136.76 +/- 111.97 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.35 (0.08-1.06) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.098 +/- 0.009 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.032 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.20 (0.04-0.40) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.076 +/- 0.011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.46 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.11 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified40.66 +/- 9.77 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
SalivaDetected and Quantified27.12 +/- 15.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified31.46 +/- 11.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.350 +/- 0.097 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.067 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPancreatic cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Pancreatic cancer
  1. Loser C, Folsch UR, Paprotny C, Creutzfeldt W: Polyamine concentrations in pancreatic tissue, serum, and urine of patients with pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 1990 Mar;5(2):119-27. Pubmed: 2315288
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01917
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001494
KNApSAcK IDC00001428
Chemspider ID13837702
KEGG Compound IDC00134
BioCyc IDPUTRESCINE
BiGG ID33980
Wikipedia LinkPutrescine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01414
Metagene LinkHMDB01414
METLIN ID3226
PubChem Compound1045
PDB IDPUT
ChEBI ID17148
References
Synthesis ReferenceDudley, H. W.; Thorpe, W. V. Synthesis of N-methylputrescine and of putrescine. Biochemical Journal (1925), 19 845-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Gimelli G, Giglio S, Zuffardi O, Alhonen L, Suppola S, Cusano R, Lo Nigro C, Gatti R, Ravazzolo R, Seri M: Gene dosage of the spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase ( SSAT) gene with putrescine accumulation in a patient with a Xp21.1p22.12 duplication and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD). Hum Genet. 2002 Sep;111(3):235-41. Epub 2002 Aug 1. Pubmed: 12215835
  2. Janne J, Alhonen L, Pietila M, Keinanen TA: Genetic approaches to the cellular functions of polyamines in mammals. Eur J Biochem. 2004 Mar;271(5):877-94. Pubmed: 15009201
  3. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  4. Venza M, Visalli M, Cicciu D, Teti D: Determination of polyamines in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Jun 5;757(1):111-7. Pubmed: 11419735
  5. El Baze P, Milano G, Verrando P, Renee N, Ortonne JP: Polyamine levels in normal human skin. A comparative study of pure epidermis, pure dermis, and suction blister fluid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1983;275(4):218-21. Pubmed: 6625645
  6. Reeben M, Arbatova J, Palgi J, Miettinen R, Halmekyto M, Alhonen L, Janne J, Riekkinen P Sr, Saarma M: Induced expression of neurotrophins in transgenic mice overexpressing ornithine decarboxylase and overproducing putrescine. J Neurosci Res. 1996 Sep 1;45(5):542-8. Pubmed: 8875319
  7. Takagi K, Tatsumi Y, Kitaichi K, Iwase M, Shibata E, Nakao M, Matsumoto T, Takagi K, Hasegawa T: A sensitive colorimetric assay for polyamines in erythrocytes using oat seedling polyamine oxidase. Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Feb;340(1-2):219-27. Pubmed: 14734216
  8. Harik SI, Sutton CH: Putrescine as a biochemical marker of malignant brain tumors. Cancer Res. 1979 Dec;39(12):5010-5. Pubmed: 227593
  9. Halmekyto M, Alhonen L, Alakuijala L, Janne J: Transgenic mice over-producing putrescine in their tissues do not convert the diamine into higher polyamines. Biochem J. 1993 Apr 15;291 ( Pt 2):505-8. Pubmed: 8484731
  10. Goldman SS, Volkow ND, Brodie J, Flamm ES: Putrescine metabolism in human brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1986;4(1):23-9. Pubmed: 3746382
  11. Yamazaki H, Tsukahara T, Uki J, Matsuzaki S: Elevated levels of free putrescine and N1-acetylspermidine in cyst fluids of malignant brain tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Feb;49(2):209-10. Pubmed: 3950641
  12. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Mar 3. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Pubmed: 23455439
  13. Janne J, Alhonen L, Keinanen TA, Pietila M, Uimari A, Pirinen E, Hyvonen MT, Jarvinen A: Animal disease models generated by genetic engineering of polyamine metabolism. J Cell Mol Med. 2005 Oct-Dec;9(4):865-82. Pubmed: 16364196

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of N(1)-acetylspermine to spermidine and is thus involved in the polyamine back-conversion. Can also oxidize N(1)-acetylspermidine to putrescine. Substrate specificity: N(1)-acetylspermine = N(1)-acetylspermidine > N(1),N(12)-diacylspermine >> spermine. Does not oxidize spermidine. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs.
Gene Name:
PAOX
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHF9
Molecular weight:
55512.64
Reactions
N1-Acetylspermidine + Oxygen + Water → Putrescine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHDH
Uniprot ID:
Q8NE62
Molecular weight:
65358.005
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
General function:
Involved in spermine synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM).
Gene Name:
SMS
Uniprot ID:
P52788
Molecular weight:
35278.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.
Gene Name:
SRM
Uniprot ID:
P19623
Molecular weight:
33824.455
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Putrescine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Spermidinedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
Reactions
Putrescine + Oxygen + Water → 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S-adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6-aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates.
Gene Name:
MTAP
Uniprot ID:
Q13126
Molecular weight:
31235.76
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Molecular weight:
21301.015
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development. May be involved in the response to heart failure by elevating local creatine synthesis.
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
P50440
Molecular weight:
48455.01
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the irreversible oxidation of choline.
Gene Name:
BHMT
Uniprot ID:
Q93088
Molecular weight:
44998.205
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SARDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL12
Molecular weight:
101035.985
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ODC1
Uniprot ID:
P11926
Molecular weight:
51147.73
Reactions
Ornithine → Putrescine + CO(2)details
Ornithine → Putrescine + Carbon dioxidedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.
Gene Name:
SMOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWM0
Molecular weight:
65006.29
General function:
Involved in agmatinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGMAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BSE5
Molecular weight:
37660.065
Reactions
Agmatine + Water → Putrescine + Ureadetails
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular weight:
44048.895
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts homocysteine to methionine using S-methylmethionine (SMM) as a methyl donor.
Gene Name:
BHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2M3
Molecular weight:
33166.69
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Decreases the sensitivity of PDP1 to magnesium ions, and this inhibition is reversed by the polyamine spermine
Gene Name:
PDPR
Uniprot ID:
Q8NCN5
Molecular weight:
99363.7
General function:
Involved in enzyme inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Binds to, and destabilizes, ornithine decarboxylase which is then degraded. Also inhibits cellular uptake of polyamines by inactivating the polyamine uptake transporter. SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1
Gene Name:
OAZ1
Uniprot ID:
P54368
Molecular weight:
25405.3
General function:
Involved in leucine zipper domain binding
Specific function:
Part of the MIS12 complex which is required for normal chromosome alignment and segregation and kinetochore formation during mitosis. May act as a cotranscription partner of NFE2L2 involved in regulation of polyamine-induced transcription of SSAT
Gene Name:
PMF1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1K2
Molecular weight:
23339.2

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. Pubmed: 10215651