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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-22 11:10:26 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01860
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameParaxanthine
Description1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine) is the preferential path of caffeine metabolism in humans. Paraxanthine is a dimethylxanthine compound structurally related to caffeine. Like caffeine, paraxanthine is a psychoactive central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It possesses a potency roughly equal to that of caffeine and is likely involved in the mediation of the effects of caffeine itself.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3,7-dihydro-1,7-Dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
P-XanthineChEBI
ParaxanthineChEBI
1,7-Dimethyl-xanthineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Molecular Weight180.164
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.06472552
IUPAC Name1,7-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nameparaxanthine
CAS Registry Number611-59-6
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)11(2)7(13)9-5/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=QUNWUDVFRNGTCO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point351 - 352 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.13 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP0.24ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.87ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity46.72 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-000i-2980000000-6ee5dc3100885f205536View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0900000000-2d1aa5f80618f452686cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-3326bcbee23b63dcc230View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-9824aef9dc2f13c24bccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00e9-1900000000-9d0dde13bb1ce13e2644View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00fr-0900000000-1aa733a1b7e41b994d8dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.0 (0.30-28.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.44 +/- 2 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (3.2-4.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.780 +/- 0.641 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedFavorable outcome from traumatic brain injury details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.833 +/- 1.163 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.200 +/- 1.373 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.703 +/- 0.230 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Traumatic brain injury
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.931 +/- 0.221 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedTraumatic brain injury (TBI) details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.676 +/- 26.196 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.6 (1.8-5.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Asthma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Asthma
  1. Zydron M, Baranowski J, Baranowska I: Separation, pre-concentration, and HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in urine samples. J Sep Sci. 2004 Oct;27(14):1166-72. [15537072 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00223
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022714
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4525
KEGG Compound IDC13747
BioCyc ID1-7-DIMETHYLXANTHINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkParaxanthine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01860
Metagene LinkHMDB01860
METLIN ID1457
PubChem Compound4687
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID25858
References
Synthesis ReferenceMueller, Christa E.; Deters, Dirk; Dominik, Andreas; Pawlowski, Maciej. Synthesis of paraxanthine and isoparaxanthine analogs (1,7- and 1,9-substituted xanthine derivatives). Synthesis (1998), (10), 1428-1436.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Christensen M, Andersson K, Dalen P, Mirghani RA, Muirhead GJ, Nordmark A, Tybring G, Wahlberg A, Yasar U, Bertilsson L: The Karolinska cocktail for phenotyping of five human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jun;73(6):517-28. [12811361 ]
  3. Fuhr U, Rost KL: Simple and reliable CYP1A2 phenotyping by the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in plasma and in saliva. Pharmacogenetics. 1994 Jun;4(3):109-16. [7920690 ]
  4. Tanaka E: Simultaneous determination of caffeine and its primary demethylated metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1992 Mar 27;575(2):311-4. [1629311 ]
  5. Horrigan LA, Kelly JP, Connor TJ: Immunomodulatory effects of caffeine: friend or foe? Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;111(3):877-92. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [16540173 ]
  6. Holstege A, Kurz M, Weinbeck M, Gerok W: Excretion of caffeine and its primary degradation products into bile. J Hepatol. 1993 Jan;17(1):67-73. [8445222 ]
  7. Granfors MT, Backman JT, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ: Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene markedly increase plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct;78(4):400-11. [16198659 ]
  8. Blanchard J, Weber CW, Shearer LE: HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in human breast milk. J Chromatogr Sci. 1990 Dec;28(12):640-2. [2292610 ]
  9. Delahunty T, Schoendorfer D: Caffeine demethylation monitoring using a transdermal sweat patch. J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Nov-Dec;22(7):596-600. [9847011 ]
  10. Holland DT, Godfredsen KA, Page T, Connor JD: Simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of serum caffeine and paraxanthine following rapid sample preparation. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Apr 10;707(1-2):105-10. [9613939 ]
  11. Fuhr U, Rost KL, Engelhardt R, Sachs M, Liermann D, Belloc C, Beaune P, Janezic S, Grant D, Meyer UA, Staib AH: Evaluation of caffeine as a test drug for CYP1A2, NAT2 and CYP2E1 phenotyping in man by in vivo versus in vitro correlations. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Apr;6(2):159-76. [9156694 ]
  12. Zaigler M, Rietbrock S, Szymanski J, Dericks-Tan JS, Staib AH, Fuhr U: Variation of CYP1A2-dependent caffeine metabolism during menstrual cycle in healthy women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 May;38(5):235-44. [10839467 ]
  13. Blanchard J, Weber CW, Shearer LE: Methylxanthine levels in breast milk of lactating women of different ethnic and socioeconomic classes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1992 Apr;13(3):187-96. [1576327 ]
  14. Wahllander A, Renner E, Karlaganis G: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of dimethylxanthine metabolites of caffeine in human plasma. J Chromatogr. 1985 Mar 22;338(2):369-75. [3998024 ]
  15. Koch JP, ten Tusscher GW, Koppe JG, Guchelaar HJ: Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography assay for quantification of caffeine and paraxanthine in human serum in the context of CYP1A2 phenotyping. Biomed Chromatogr. 1999 Jun;13(4):309-14. [10416066 ]
  16. Sachse C, Ruschen S, Dettling M, Schley J, Bauer S, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphism in a white population: allele frequencies, mutation linkage, and functional effects on clozapine and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Oct;66(4):431-8. [10546928 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
P18440
Molecular weight:
33898.445
Reactions
Paraxanthine → 5-Acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracildetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular weight:
33570.245
Reactions
Paraxanthine → 5-Acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracildetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Paraxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 1,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
A4Z6T7
Molecular weight:
33570.2
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9