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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-10-16 12:25:20 UTC
Update Date2014-06-13 18:08:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05006
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAtorvastatin
DescriptionAtorvastatin is a member of the drug class known as statins, used for lowering cholesterol and thereby reducing cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin inhibits a rate-determining enzyme located in hepatic tissue used in cholesterol synthesis, which lowers the amount of cholesterol produced. This also has the effect of lowering the total amount of LDL cholesterol; Atorvastatin is a member of the drug class known as statins, used for lowering cholesterol and thereby reducing cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin inhibits a rate-determining enzyme located in hepatic tissue used in cholesterol synthesis, which lowers the amount of cholesterol produced. This also has the effect of lowering the total amount of LDL cholesterol; As with other statins, atorvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Unlike most others, however, it is a completely synthetic compound. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, which is the rate-limiting step in hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Inhibition of the enzyme decreases de novo cholesterol synthesis, increasing expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDL receptors) on hepatocytes. This increases the LDL uptake by the hepatocytes, decreasing the amount of LDL in the blood.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Atorvastatin acid
  2. Atorvastatin calcium
  3. Cardyl
  4. Lipitor
Chemical FormulaC33H35FN2O5
Average Molecular Weight558.6398
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight558.253000445
IUPAC Name(3R,5R)-7-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4-(phenylcarbamoyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Nameatorvastatin
CAS Registry Number134523-00-5
SMILES
CC(C)C1=C(C(=O)NC2=CC=CC=C2)C(=C(N1CC[C@@H](O)C[C@@H](O)CC(O)=O)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C33H35FN2O5/c1-21(2)31-30(33(41)35-25-11-7-4-8-12-25)29(22-9-5-3-6-10-22)32(23-13-15-24(34)16-14-23)36(31)18-17-26(37)19-27(38)20-28(39)40/h3-16,21,26-27,37-38H,17-20H2,1-2H3,(H,35,41)(H,39,40)/t26-,27-/m1/s1
InChI KeyXUKUURHRXDUEBC-KAYWLYCHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
ClassAnilides
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Branched Fatty Acids
  • Halogenated Fatty Acids
  • Heterocyclic Fatty Acids
  • Organic Compounds
  • dihydroxy monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
  • pyrroles(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Aryl Fluoride
  • Beta Hydroxy Acid
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Organofluoride
  • Pyrrole
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
Direct ParentAnilides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point159.1 - 190.6 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.300E-04 g/LALOGPS
logP4.24ALOGPS
logP5.39ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area111.79ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity158.2ChemAxon
Polarizability59.39ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Liver
  • Platelet
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.010 +/- 0.0044 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Sepsis
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Sepsis
  1. Kruger PS, Freir NM, Venkatesh B, Robertson TA, Roberts MS, Jones M: A preliminary study of atorvastatin plasma concentrations in critically ill patients with sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2008 Nov 26. Pubmed: 19034423
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023579
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54810
KEGG Compound IDC06834
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAtorvastatin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05006
Metagene LinkHMDB05006
METLIN ID1136
PubChem Compound60823
PDB ID117
ChEBI ID2910
References
Synthesis ReferenceRoth, Bruce David. Preparation of anticholesteremic (R-(R*R*))-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-b, d-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethyl-3-phenyl-4((phenylamino)carbonyl)-1H-pyrrolyl-1-heptanoic acid, its lactone form and salts thereof. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1991), 18 pp. CODEN: EPXXDW EP 409281 A1 19910123 CAN 115:29107 AN 1991:429107
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Taylor PJ, Kubler PA, Lynch SV, Allen J, Butler M, Pillans PI: Effect of atorvastatin on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in liver transplant recipients. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Feb;38(2):205-8. Epub 2003 Dec 19. Pubmed: 14742751
  2. Funatsu T, Suzuki K, Goto M, Arai Y, Kakuta H, Tanaka H, Yasuda S, Ida M, Nishijima S, Miyata K: Prolonged inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by atorvastatin inhibits apo B-100 and triglyceride secretion from HepG2 cells. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Jul;157(1):107-15. Pubmed: 11427209
  3. Tannous M, Cheung R, Vignini A, Mutus B: Atorvastatin increases ecNOS levels in human platelets of hyperlipidemic subjects. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Nov;82(5):1390-4. Pubmed: 10595624
  4. Naoumova RP, Dunn S, Rallidis L, Abu-Muhana O, Neuwirth C, Rendell NB, Taylor GW, Thompson GR: Prolonged inhibition of cholesterol synthesis explains the efficacy of atorvastatin. J Lipid Res. 1997 Jul;38(7):1496-500. Pubmed: 9254075
  5. Izar MC: [Hypolipidemic treatment under special conditions: posttransplant and/or immunosuppressive therapy] Arq Bras Cardiol. 2005 Oct;85 Suppl 5:50-7. Epub 2006 Jan 2. Pubmed: 16400400
  6. Hwang YS, Tsai WC, Lu YH, Lin CC, Chen YF: Effect of atorvastatin on the expression of CD40 ligand and P-selectin on platelets in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Aug 1;94(3):364-6. Pubmed: 15276107
  7. Bruni F, Pasqui AL, Pastorelli M, Bova G, Cercignani M, Palazzuoli A, Sawamura T, Auteri A, Puccetti L: Different effect of statins on platelet oxidized-LDL receptor (CD36 and LOX-1) expression in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2005 Oct;11(4):417-28. Pubmed: 16244767
  8. Fenton JW 2nd, Brezniak DV, Ofosu FA, Shen GX, Jacobson JR, Garcia JG: Statins and thrombin. Curr Drug Targets Cardiovasc Haematol Disord. 2005 Apr;5(2):115-20. Pubmed: 15853752
  9. Pokrovskaia EV, Vaulin NA, Gratsianskii NA, Averkov OV, Deev AD: [Markers of inflammation and platelet aggregation in patients with non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with atorvastatin or pravastatin] Kardiologiia. 2003;43(1):7-18. Pubmed: 12891281
  10. Funatsu T, Kakuta H, Tanaka H, Arai Y, Suzuki K, Miyata K: [Atorvastatin (Lipitor): a review of its pharmacological and clinical profile] Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2001 Jan;117(1):65-76. Pubmed: 11233299
  11. Tousoulis D, Bosinakou E, Kotsopoulou M, Antoniades C, Katsi V, Stefanadis C: Effects of early administration of atorvastatin treatment on thrombotic process in normocholesterolemic patients with unstable angina. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 26;106(3):333-7. Pubmed: 16337041
  12. Malinowski JM: Atorvastatin: a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1998 Nov 1;55(21):2253-67; quiz 2302-3. Pubmed: 9825877

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.
Gene Name:
PON1
Uniprot ID:
P27169
Molecular weight:
39730.99
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular weight:
97475.155
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, and protein C. Its rapid interaction with TPA may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis
Gene Name:
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID:
P05121
Molecular weight:
45059.7
General function:
Involved in chemokine activity
Specific function:
Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis
Gene Name:
CCL2
Uniprot ID:
P13500
Molecular weight:
11024.9
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes gastrointestinal disorders. May be an activator of PLCE1. Activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP
Gene Name:
RHOA
Uniprot ID:
P61586
Molecular weight:
21767.9
General function:
Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular weight:
25644.1
General function:
Involved in choline binding
Specific function:
Displays several functions associated with host defense:it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells
Gene Name:
CRP
Uniprot ID:
P02741
Molecular weight:
25038.4
General function:
Involved in lipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor
Gene Name:
APOB
Uniprot ID:
P04114
Molecular weight:
515600.1
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth
Gene Name:
VEGFA
Uniprot ID:
P15692
Molecular weight:
27042.2
General function:
Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific function:
Release of soluble CD40L from platelets is partially regulated by GP IIb/IIIa, actin polymerization, and an matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitor-sensitive pathway
Gene Name:
CD40LG
Uniprot ID:
P29965
Molecular weight:
29273.3
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular weight:
57619.6
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl- 2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular weight:
52224.6
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Angiotensin 1-7 is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor MAS1. Has vasodilator and antidiuretic effects. Has an antithrombotic effect that involves MAS1-mediated release of nitric oxide from platelets
Gene Name:
AGT
Uniprot ID:
P01019
Molecular weight:
53153.7
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion interactions that are required for normal development. May participate in the linkage between muscle fiber and basement membrane. May play a role in endochondral ossification of bone and branching morphogenesis of lung. Binds heparin
Gene Name:
COL13A1
Uniprot ID:
Q5TAT6
Molecular weight:
69949.7
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Acts as component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) which is the putative replicative helicase essential for 'once per cell cycle' DNA replication initiation and elongation in eukaryotic cells. The active ATPase sites in the MCM2-7 ring are formed through the interaction surfaces of two neighboring subunits such that a critical structure of a conserved arginine finger motif is provided in trans relative to the ATP-binding site of the Walker A box of the adjacent subunit. The six ATPase active sites, however, are likely to contribute differentially to the complex helicase activity.
Gene Name:
MCM6
Uniprot ID:
Q14566
Molecular weight:
92888.38
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Acts as component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) which is the putative replicative helicase essential for 'once per cell cycle' DNA replication initiation and elongation in eukaryotic cells. The active ATPase sites in the MCM2-7 ring are formed through the interaction surfaces of two neighboring subunits such that a critical structure of a conserved arginine finger motif is provided in trans relative to the ATP-binding site of the Walker A box of the adjacent subunit. The six ATPase active sites, however, are likely to contribute differentially to the complex helicase activity. Required for S-phase checkpoint activation upon UV-induced damage.
Gene Name:
MCM7
Uniprot ID:
P33993
Molecular weight:
81307.22