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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:29:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00939
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameS-Adenosylhomocysteine
DescriptionS-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) is the immediate precursor of all of the homocysteine produced in the body. The reaction is catalyzed by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and is reversible with the equilibrium favoring formation of AdoHcy. In vivo, the reaction is driven in the direction of homocysteine formation by the action of the enzyme adenosine deaminase, which converts the second product of the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase reaction, adenosine, to inosine. Except for methyl transfer from betaine and from methylcobalamin in the methionine synthase reaction, AdoHcy is the product of all methylation reactions that involve S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Methylation is significant in epigenetic regulation of protein expression via DNA and histone methylation. The inhibition of these AdoMet-mediated processes by AdoHcy is a proven mechanism for metabolic alteration. Because the conversion of AdoHcy to homocysteine is reversible, with the equilibrium favoring the formation of AdoHcy, increases in plasma homocysteine are accompanied by an elevation of AdoHcy in most cases. Disturbances in the transmethylation pathway indicated by abnormal S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine or their ratio have been reported in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, depression or Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 18065573 , 17892439 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (S)-5'-(S)-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine
  2. 2-S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine
  3. 5'-Deoxy-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
  4. 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thio-L-Adenosine
  5. Adenosyl-homo-CYS
  6. Adenosyl-L-homocysteine
  7. Adenosylhomo-CYS
  8. Adenosylhomocysteine
  9. Adohcy
  10. Formycinylhomocysteine
  11. L-5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thior-Adenosine
  12. L-S-Adenosyl-Homocysteine
  13. L-S-Adenosylhomocysteine
  14. S-(5'-Adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
  15. S-(5'-Deoxyadenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
  16. S-(5'-Deoxyadenosine-5')-L-homocysteine
  17. S-Adenosyl-homocysteine
  18. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine
  19. SAH
Chemical FormulaC14H20N6O5S
Average Molecular Weight384.411
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight384.12158847
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-({[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl}sulfanyl)butanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameS-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
CAS Registry Number979-92-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCSC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC2=C(N)N=CN=C12)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C14H20N6O5S/c15-6(14(23)24)1-2-26-3-7-9(21)10(22)13(25-7)20-5-19-8-11(16)17-4-18-12(8)20/h4-7,9-10,13,21-22H,1-3,15H2,(H,23,24)(H2,16,17,18)/t6-,7+,9+,10+,13+/m0/s1
InChI KeyZJUKTBDSGOFHSH-WFMPWKQPSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassGlycoamino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Purine Nucleosides and Analogues
  • amino acid zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Alpha Amino Acid Or Derivative
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Polyamine
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Thioether
Direct ParentGlycoamino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Ubiquinone biosynthesis
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point209 - 211 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility4.08 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.4ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.81ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.5ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count10ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count5ChemAxon
polar surface area182.63ChemAxon
rotatable bond count7ChemAxon
refractivity92.72ChemAxon
polarizability38.41ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphoblast
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123map00260
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.02 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.01 (0.009-0.014) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0243 +/- 0.0068 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.016 (0.009-0.025) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNeurodegenerative diseases details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.49 +/- 0.05 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothParkinson's Disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0269 +/- 0.0062 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Neurodegenerative disease
  1. Obeid R, Kostopoulos P, Knapp JP, Kasoha M, Becker G, Fassbender K, Herrmann W: Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 are related in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 2007 Feb;53(2):326-33. Epub 2007 Jan 2. Pubmed: 17200133
Parkinson's disease
  1. Cheng H, Gomes-Trolin C, Aquilonius SM, Steinberg A, Lofberg C, Ekblom J, Oreland L: Levels of L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase activity in erythrocytes and concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in whole blood of patients with Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 1997 Jun;145(2 Pt 1):580-5. Pubmed: 9217094
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00514
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022327
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388301
KEGG Compound IDC00021
BioCyc IDADENOSYL-HOMO-CYS
BiGG ID33543
Wikipedia LinkSAH
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00939
Metagene LinkHMDB00939
METLIN ID296
PubChem Compound439155
PDB IDSAH
ChEBI ID16680
References
Synthesis ReferenceHoly, Antonin; Rosenberg, Ivan. Studies on S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. Part XV. An improved synthesis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and related compounds. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications (1985), 50(7), 1514-18.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Augoustides-Savvopoulou P, Luka Z, Karyda S, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Patsiaoura K, Wagner C, Mudd SH: Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(8):745-59. Pubmed: 14739680
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  3. Hershfield MS, Kredich NM, Koller CA, Mitchell BS, Kurtzberg J, Kinney TR, Falletta JM: S-adenosylhomocysteine catabolism and basis for acquired resistance during treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with 2'-deoxycoformycin alone and in combination with 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine. Cancer Res. 1983 Jul;43(7):3451-8. Pubmed: 6601986
  4. Miller AL: The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Feb;8(1):7-19. Pubmed: 12611557
  5. Struys EA, Jansen EE, de Meer K, Jakobs C: Determination of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by stable-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2000 Oct;46(10):1650-6. Pubmed: 11017945
  6. Wang J, Dudman NP, Wilcken DE: Effects of homocysteine and related compounds on prostacyclin production by cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Thromb Haemost. 1993 Dec 20;70(6):1047-52. Pubmed: 8165599
  7. Palella TD, Schatz RA, Wilens TE, Fox IH: S-Adenosylhomocysteine accumulation and selective cytotoxicity in cultured J Lab Clin Med. 1982 Aug;100(2):269-78. Pubmed: 6980250
  8. van Guldener C, Stehouwer CD: Homocysteine and methionine metabolism in renal failure. Semin Vasc Med. 2005 May;5(2):201-8. Pubmed: 16047272
  9. Muskiet FA: The importance of (early) folate status to primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention. Reprod Toxicol. 2005 Sep-Oct;20(3):403-10. Pubmed: 15964170
  10. Fowler B: Homocysteine: overview of biochemistry, molecular biology, and role in disease processes. Semin Vasc Med. 2005 May;5(2):77-86. Pubmed: 16047261
  11. Gordon RK, Ginalski K, Rudnicki WR, Rychlewski L, Pankaskie MC, Bujnicki JM, Chiang PK: Anti-HIV-1 activity of 3-deaza-adenosine analogs. Inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and nucleotide congeners. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Sep;270(17):3507-17. Pubmed: 12919315
  12. Metz J: Cobalamin deficiency and the pathogenesis of nervous system disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 1992;12:59-79. Pubmed: 1354465
  13. Mulder C, Schoonenboom NS, Jansen EE, Verhoeven NM, van Kamp GJ, Jakobs C, Scheltens P: The transmethylation cycle in the brain of Alzheimer patients. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Sep 30;386(2):69-71. Pubmed: 16040194
  14. Delabar U, Kloor D, Luippold G, Muhlbauer B: Simultaneous determination of adenosine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine in biological samples using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Mar 19;724(2):231-8. Pubmed: 10219663
  15. Hermes M, von Hippel S, Osswald H, Kloor D: S-adenosylhomocysteine metabolism in different cell lines: effect of hypoxia and cell density. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;15(5):233-44. Pubmed: 15956786
  16. Weir DG, Molloy AM, Keating JN, Young PB, Kennedy S, Kennedy DG, Scott JM: Correlation of the ratio of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of the pig: implications for the determination of this methylation ratio in human brain. Clin Sci (Lond). 1992 Jan;82(1):93-7. Pubmed: 1310924
  17. Wagner C, Koury MJ: S-Adenosylhomocysteine: a better indicator of vascular disease than homocysteine? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1581-5. Pubmed: 18065573
  18. Herrmann W, Obeid R: Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B(12) status in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(12):1614-20. Pubmed: 17892439

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes three sequential methylation reactions of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by AdoMet, thereby producing phosphatidylcholine (PC).
Gene Name:
PEMT
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBM1
Molecular weight:
23697.395
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolaminedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + phosphatidylcholinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Phosphatidylethanolamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolaminedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Phosphatidylcholinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Phosphatidylethanolamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolaminedetails
General function:
Involved in O-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 1 catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group onto N-acetylserotonin, producing melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack enzyme activity.
Gene Name:
ASMT
Uniprot ID:
P46597
Molecular weight:
41660.34
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + N-Acetylserotonin → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Melatonindetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 5-Methoxyindoleacetatedetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + a catechol → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + a guaiacoldetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Norepinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Normetanephrinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Epinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Metanephrinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Homovanillic aciddetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Dopamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 3-Methoxytyraminedetails
2-Hydroxyestrone + S-Adenosylmethionine → 2-Methoxyestrone + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
2-Hydroxyestradiol + S-Adenosylmethionine → 2-Methoxyestradiol + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Vanylglycoldetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Vanillylmandelic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-79' of histone H3. Nucleosomes are preferred as substrate compared to free histones. Binds to DNA.
Gene Name:
DOT1L
Uniprot ID:
Q8TEK3
Molecular weight:
164854.41
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in folic acid binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular weight:
32742.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Glycine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Sarcosinedetails
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically monomethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Plays a central role in the transcriptional activation of genes such as collagenase or insulin. Recruited by IPF1/PDX-1 to the insulin promoter, leading to activate transcription. Has also methyltransferase activity toward non-histone proteins such as p53/TP53, TAF10, and possibly TAF7 by recognizing and binding the [KR]-[STA]-K in substrate proteins. Monomethylates 'Lys-189' of TAF10, leading to increase the affinity of TAF10 for RNA polymerase II. Monomethylates 'Lys-372' of p53/TP53, stabilizing p53/TP53 and increasing p53/TP53-mediated transcriptional activation.
Gene Name:
SETD7
Uniprot ID:
Q8WTS6
Molecular weight:
40720.595
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts noradrenaline to adrenaline.
Gene Name:
PNMT
Uniprot ID:
P11086
Molecular weight:
30854.745
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N-Methylphenylethanolaminedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Norepinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Epinephrinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase that catalyzes the trimethylation of the amino group of the modified target histidine residue in translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2), to form an intermediate called diphthine. The three successive methylation reactions represent the second step of diphthamide biosynthesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DPH5
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2P9
Molecular weight:
31651.17
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 2-(3-Carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-L-histidine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl)-L-histidinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to trivalent arsenicals producing methylated and dimethylated arsenicals. It methylates arsenite to form methylarsonate, Me-AsO(3)H(2), which is reduced by methylarsonate reductase to methylarsonite, Me-As(OH)2. Methylarsonite is also a substrate and it is converted into the much less toxic compound dimethylarsinate (cacodylate), Me(2)As(O)-OH (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AS3MT
Uniprot ID:
Q9HBK9
Molecular weight:
41747.49
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Arsenite → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Methylarsonatedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Methylarsonite → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Dimethylarsinatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the 2-thiolation of uridine at the wobble position (U34) of mitochondrial tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln). Required for the formation of 5-taurinomethyl-2- thiouridine (tm5s2U) of mitochondrial tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu), and tRNA(Gln) at the wobble position. ATP is required to activate the C2 atom of the wobble base
Gene Name:
TRMU
Uniprot ID:
O75648
Molecular weight:
47744.3
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase. Preferentially methylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3 and 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (in vitro). Transcriptional intermediary factor capable of both negatively or positively influencing transcription, depending on the cellular context.
Gene Name:
NSD1
Uniprot ID:
Q96L73
Molecular weight:
296649.335
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in euchromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the silencing of euchromatic genes. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is coordinated with DNA methylation. Probably forms a complex with MBD1 and ATF7IP that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone 'Lys-9' trimethylation. Its activity is dependent on MBD1 and is heritably maintained through DNA replication by being recruited by CAF-1. SETDB1 is targeted to histone H3 by TRIM28/TIF1B, a factor recruited by KRAB zinc-finger proteins.
Gene Name:
SETDB1
Uniprot ID:
Q15047
Molecular weight:
143155.6
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the methyl esterification of L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartyl residues in peptides and proteins that result from spontaneous decomposition of normal L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues. It plays a role in the repair and/or degradation of damaged proteins. Acts on microtubule-associated protein 2, calreticulin, clathrin light chains a and b, Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1, stathmin, beta-synuclein and alpha-synuclein (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PCMT1
Uniprot ID:
P22061
Molecular weight:
30357.695
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + protein L-isoaspartate → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + protein L-isoaspartate alpha-methyl esterdetails
General function:
Involved in protein C-terminal S-isoprenylcysteine carboxyl O-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational methylation of isoprenylated C-terminal cysteine residues.
Gene Name:
ICMT
Uniprot ID:
O60725
Molecular weight:
31937.775
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methyl esterdetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Functions as thioether S-methyltransferase and is active with a variety of thioethers and the corresponding selenium and tellurium compounds, including 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, dimethyl selenide, dimethyl telluride, 2-methylthioethylamine, 2-methylthioethanol, methyl-n-propyl sulfide and diethyl sulfide. Plays an important role in the detoxification of selenium compounds (By similarity). Catalyzes the N-methylation of tryptamine and structurally related compounds.
Gene Name:
INMT
Uniprot ID:
O95050
Molecular weight:
28833.695
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + an amine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + a methylated aminedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Dimethylsulfide → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Trimethyl sulfoniumdetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Tryptamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N-Methyltryptaminedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Serotonin → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N-Methylserotonindetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Dimethyl selenide → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Trimethylselenoniumdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Required for genome-wide de novo methylation and is essential for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. It modifies DNA in a non-processive manner and also methylates non-CpG sites. May preferentially methylate DNA linker between 2 nucleosomal cores and is inhibited by histone H1. Plays a role in paternal and maternal imprinting. Required for methylation of most imprinted loci in germ cells. Acts as a transcriptional corepressor for ZNF238. Can actively repress transcription through the recruitment of HDAC activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNMT3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6K1
Molecular weight:
101857.595
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA cytosine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA 5-methylcytosinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
COQ3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZJ6
Molecular weight:
41053.76
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3,4-dihydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoatedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3-demethylubiquinone-n → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + ubiquinone-ndetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3-(all-trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2-diol → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 2-methoxy-6-(all-trans-polyprenyl)phenoldetails
2-Hexaprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + S-Adenosylmethionine → Ubiquinone 6 + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3-Hexaprenyl-4,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 3-Hexaprenyl-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3-Demethylubiquinone-9 → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Coenzyme Q9details
3-Polyprenyl-4,5-dihydroxybenzoate + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Polyprenyl-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoate + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
2-Polyprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + S-Adenosylmethionine → Ubiquinone-2 + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2, respectively) in euchromatin. H3K9me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 proteins to methylated histones. Also mediates monomethylation of 'Lys-56' of histone H3 (H3K56me1) in G1 phase, leading to promote interaction between histone H3 and PCNA and regulating DNA replication. Also weakly methylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). Also required for DNA methylation, the histone methyltransferase activity is not required for DNA methylation, suggesting that these 2 activities function independently. Probably targeted to histone H3 by different DNA-binding proteins like E2F6, MGA, MAX and/or DP1. May also methylate histone H1. In addition to the histone methyltransferase activity, also methylates non-histone proteins: mediates dimethylation of 'Lys-373' of p53/TP53. Also methylates CDYL, WIZ, ACIN1, DNMT1, HDAC1, ERCC6, KLF12 and itself.
Gene Name:
EHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KQ7
Molecular weight:
132369.205
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state.
Gene Name:
MTRR
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBK8
Molecular weight:
77672.995
Reactions
[methionine synthase]-methylcob(I)alamin + S-Adenosylhomocysteine + NADP → [methionine synthase]-cob(II)alamin + NADPH + S-Adenosylmethioninedetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 using monomethylated H3 'Lys-9' as substrate. Also weakly methylates histone H1 (in vitro). H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin at pericentric and telomere regions. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is also required to direct DNA methylation at pericentric repeats. SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as repression of MYOD1-stimulated differentiation, regulation of the control switch for exiting the cell cycle and entering differentiation, repression by the PML-RARA fusion protein, BMP-induced repression, repression of switch recombination to IgA and regulation of telomere length. Component of the eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of rDNA in response to intracellular energy status and acts by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes. The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus.
Gene Name:
SUV39H1
Uniprot ID:
O43463
Molecular weight:
47907.065
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines to form pyridinium ions. This activity is important for biotransformation of many drugs and xenobiotic compounds.
Gene Name:
NNMT
Uniprot ID:
P40261
Molecular weight:
29573.705
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Niacinamide → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylnicotinamidedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Niacinamide + Hydrogen Ion → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylnicotinamidedetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 using monomethylated H3 'Lys-9' as substrate. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin at pericentric and telomere regions. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is also required to direct DNA methylation at pericentric repeats. SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional repression and regulation of telomere length. May participate in regulation of higher-order chromatin organization during spermatogenesis.
Gene Name:
SUV39H2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H5I1
Molecular weight:
46682.015
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2, respectively) in euchromatin. H3K9me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 proteins to methylated histones. Also weakly methylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). Also required for DNA methylation, the histone methyltransferase activity is not required for DNA methylation, suggesting that these 2 activities function independently. Probably targeted to histone H3 by different DNA-binding proteins like E2F6, MGA, MAX and/or DP1. During G0 phase, it probably contributes to silencing of MYC- and E2F-responsive genes, suggesting a role in G0/G1 transition in cell cycle. In addition to the histone methyltransferase activity, also methylates non-histone proteins: mediates dimethylation of 'Lys-373' of p53/TP53.
Gene Name:
EHMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H9B1
Molecular weight:
86702.845
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GAMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14353
Molecular weight:
26317.925
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Guanidoacetic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Creatinedetails
General function:
Involved in histamine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Inactivates histamine by N-methylation. Plays an important role in degrading histamine and in regulating the airway response to histamine.
Gene Name:
HNMT
Uniprot ID:
P50135
Molecular weight:
6045.9
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Histamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 1-Methylhistaminedetails
General function:
Involved in thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine.
Gene Name:
TPMT
Uniprot ID:
P51580
Molecular weight:
28180.09
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + a thiopurine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + a thiopurine S-methyletherdetails
Mercaptopurine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 6-Methylmercaptopurine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
6-Thioinosine-5'-monophosphate + S-Adenosylmethionine → 6-Methylthiopurine 5'-monophosphate ribonucleotide + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + S-Adenosylmethionine → 6-Methylthioguanosine monophosphate + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
N6-methyltransferase that methylates adenosine residues of some mRNAs. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), which is present at internal sites of some mRNAs, may play a role in the efficiency of mRNA splicing, transport or translation.
Gene Name:
METTL3
Uniprot ID:
Q86U44
Molecular weight:
64473.345
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + m(7)G(5')pppAm → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + m(7)G(5')pppm(6)Amdetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AHCYL2
Uniprot ID:
Q96HN2
Molecular weight:
66592.445
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Adenosylhomocysteine is a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyl transferase reactions; therefore adenosylhomocysteinase may play a key role in the control of methylations via regulation of the intracellular concentration of adenosylhomocysteine.
Gene Name:
AHCY
Uniprot ID:
P23526
Molecular weight:
47715.715
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AHCYL1
Uniprot ID:
O43865
Molecular weight:
53753.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
General function:
Involved in histone-arginine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Arginine methyltransferase that can both catalyze the formation of omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA), with a preference for the formation of MMA. Specifically mediates the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins Sm D1 (SNRPD1) and Sm D3 (SNRPD3); such methylation being required for the assembly and biogenesis of snRNP core particles. Methylates SUPT5H. Mono- and dimethylates arginine residues of myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. Plays a role in the assembly of snRNP core particles. May play a role in cytokine-activated transduction pathways. Negatively regulates cyclin E1 promoter activity and cellular proliferation. May regulate the SUPT5H transcriptional elongation properties. May be part of a pathway that is connected to a chloride current, possibly through cytoskeletal rearrangement. Methylates histone H2A and H4 'Arg-3' during germ cell development. Methylates histone H3 'Arg-8', which may repress transcription. Methylates the Piwi proteins (PIWIL1, PIWIL2 and PIWIL4), methylation of Piwi proteins being required for the interaction with Tudor domain-containing proteins and subsequent localization to the meiotic nuage. Methylates RPS10. Attenuates EGF signaling through the MAPK1/MAPK3 pathway acting at 2 levels. First, monomethylates EGFR; this enhances EGFR 'Tyr-1197' phosphorylation and PTPN6 recruitment, eventually leading to reduced SOS1 phosphorylation. Second, methylates RAF1 and probably BRAF, hence destabilizing these 2 signaling proteins and reducing their catalytic activity. Required for induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1, on the endothelial cells surface at sites of inflammation. Methylates HOXA9. Methylates and regulates SRGAP2 which is involved in cell migration and differentiation.
Gene Name:
PRMT5
Uniprot ID:
O14744
Molecular weight:
71319.755
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + arginine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(omega)-methyl-arginine-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, when part of the SET1 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex, but not if the neighboring 'Lys-9' residue is already methylated. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. The non-overalpping localization with SETD1B suggests that SETD1A and SETD1B make non-redundant contributions to the epigenetic control of chromatin structure and gene expression.
Gene Name:
SETD1A
Uniprot ID:
O15047
Molecular weight:
186032.16
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3. May function as a DNA-binding transcription factor. Binds to the macrophage-specific TPA-responsive element (MTE) of the HMOX1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene and may act as a transcriptional activator of this gene.
Gene Name:
PRDM2
Uniprot ID:
Q13029
Molecular weight:
162105.34
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that plays an essential role in early development and hematopoiesis. Catalytic subunit of the MLL1/MLL complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates both methylation of 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me) complex and acetylation of 'Lys-16' of histone H4 (H4K16ac). In the MLL1/MLL complex, it specifically mediates H3K4me, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Has weak methyltransferase activity by itself, and requires other component of the MLL1/MLL complex to obtain full methyltransferase activity. Has no activity toward histone H3 phosphorylated on 'Thr-3', less activity toward H3 dimethylated on 'Arg-8' or 'Lys-9', while it has higher activity toward H3 acetylated on 'Lys-9'. Required for transcriptional activation of HOXA9. Promotes PPP1R15A-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
MLL
Uniprot ID:
Q03164
Molecular weight:
432047.735
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Required for genome-wide de novo methylation and is essential for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. May preferentially methylates nucleosomal DNA within the nucleosome core region. May function as transcriptional co-repressor by associating with CBX4 and independently of DNA methylation. Seems to be involved in gene silencing (By similarity). In association with DNMT1 and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9. Isoforms 4 and 5 are probably not functional due to the deletion of two conserved methyltransferase motifs. Function as transcriptional corepressor by associating with ZHX1.
Gene Name:
DNMT3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBC3
Molecular weight:
81309.795
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA cytosine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA 5-methylcytosinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Specifically methylates cytosine 38 in the anticodon loop of tRNA(Asp).
Gene Name:
TRDMT1
Uniprot ID:
O14717
Molecular weight:
44596.17
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + cytosine(38) in tRNA → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 5-methylcytosine(38) in tRNAdetails
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Protein-lysine N-methyltransferase that monomethylates both histones and non-histone proteins. Specifically monomethylates 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (H4K20me1). H4K20me1 is enriched during mitosis and represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Mainly functions in euchromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the silencing of euchromatic genes. Required for cell proliferation, probably by contributing to the maintenance of proper higher-order structure of DNA during mitosis. Involved in chromosome condensation and proper cytokinesis. Nucleosomes are preferred as substrate compared to free histones. Mediates monomethylation of p53/TP53 at 'Lys-382', leading to repress p53/TP53-target genes.
Gene Name:
SETD8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQR1
Molecular weight:
39222.325
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Central component of the MLL2/3 complex, a coactivator complex of nuclear receptors, involved in transcriptional coactivation. MLL3 may be a catalytic subunit of this complex. May be involved in leukemogenesis and developmental disorder.
Gene Name:
MLL3
Uniprot ID:
Q8NEZ4
Molecular weight:
541365.64
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9.
Gene Name:
DNMT1
Uniprot ID:
P26358
Molecular weight:
184817.425
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + DNA cytosine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + DNA 5-methylcytosinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase involved in left-right axis specification in early development and mitosis. Specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me3). H3K9me3 is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression that recruits HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Contributes to H3K9me3 in both the interspersed repetitive elements and centromere-associated repeats. Plays a role in chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis.
Gene Name:
SETDB2
Uniprot ID:
Q96T68
Molecular weight:
80706.48
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in tRNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
RNA methyltransferase that methylates tRNAs, and possibly RNA polymerase III transcripts. Methylates cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) at position 34 of intron-containing tRNA(Leu)(CAA) precursors. Not able to modify tRNAs at positions 48 or 49. May act downstream of Myc to regulate epidermal cell growth and proliferation. Required for proper spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, independently of its methyltransferase activity.
Gene Name:
NSUN2
Uniprot ID:
Q08J23
Molecular weight:
82392.405
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + cytosine(34) in tRNA precursor → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 5-methylcytosine(34) in tRNA precursordetails
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Methyltransferase required for the conversion of 2-polyprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinol (DDMQH2) to 2-polyprenyl-3-methyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinol (DMQH2) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
COQ5
Uniprot ID:
Q5HYK3
Molecular weight:
37140.17
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 2-methoxy-6-all-trans-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinol → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-all-trans-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinoldetails
2-Hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + S-Adenosylmethionine → 2-Hexaprenyl-3-methyl-6-methoxy-1,4 benzoquinone + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
2-Polyprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + S-Adenosylmethionine → 2-Polyprenyl-3-methyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase specifically methylating 'Lys-36' of histone H3 (H3K36me).
Gene Name:
ASH1L
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR48
Molecular weight:
332207.495
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in pathogenesis
Specific function:
Methylates (mono- and asymmetric dimethylation) the guanidino nitrogens of arginyl residues in several proteins involved in DNA packaging, transcription regulation, pre-mRNA splicing, and mRNA stability. Recruited to promoters upon gene activation together with histone acetyltransferases from EP300/P300 and p160 families, methylates histone H3 at 'Arg-17' (H3R17me), forming mainly asymmetric dimethylarginine (H3R17me2a), leading to activate transcription via chromatin remodeling. During nuclear hormone receptor activation and TCF7L2/TCF4 activation, acts synergically with EP300/P300 and either one of the p160 histone acetyltransferases NCOA1/SRC1, NCOA2/GRIP1 and NCOA3/ACTR or CTNNB1/beta-catenin to activate transcription. During myogenic transcriptional activation, acts together with NCOA3/ACTR as a coactivator for MEF2C. During monocyte inflammatory stimulation, acts together with EP300/P300 as a coactivator for NF-kappa-B. Acts as coactivator for PPARG, promotes adipocyte differentiation and the accumulation of brown fat tissue. Plays a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing by methylation of splicing factors. Also seems to be involved in p53/TP53 transcriptional activation. Methylates EP300/P300, both at 'Arg-2142', which may loosen its interaction with NCOA2/GRIP1, and at 'Arg-580' and 'Arg-604' in the KIX domain, which impairs its interaction with CREB and inhibits CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. Also methylates arginine residues in RNA-binding proteins PABPC1, ELAVL1 and ELAV4, which may affect their mRNA-stabilizing properties and the half-life of their target mRNAs.
Gene Name:
CARM1
Uniprot ID:
Q86X55
Molecular weight:
65853.185
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + arginine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(omega)-methyl-arginine-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. Catalytic subunit of the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' (H3K9me) and 'Lys-27' (H3K27me) of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. Able to mono-, di- and trimethylate 'Lys-27' of histone H3 to form H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3, respectively. Compared to EZH2-containing complexes, it is more abundant in embryonic stem cells and plays a major role in forming H3K27me3, which is required for embryonic stem cell identity and proper differentiation. The PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex may also serve as a recruiting platform for DNA methyltransferases, thereby linking two epigenetic repression systems. Genes repressed by the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex include HOXC8, HOXA9, MYT1, CDKN2A and retinoic acid target genes. EZH2 can also methylate non-histone proteins such as the transcription factor GATA4.
Gene Name:
EZH2
Uniprot ID:
Q15910
Molecular weight:
85362.435
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in mRNA capping
Specific function:
mRNA-capping methyltransferase that methylates the N7 position of the added guanosine to the 5'-cap structure of mRNAs. Binds RNA containing 5'-terminal GpppC.
Gene Name:
RNMT
Uniprot ID:
O43148
Molecular weight:
54843.655
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + G(5')pppR-RNA → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + m(7)G(5')pppR-RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me). H3K4me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Acts as a coactivator for estrogen receptor by being recruited by ESR1, thereby activating transcription.
Gene Name:
MLL2
Uniprot ID:
O14686
Molecular weight:
593384.62
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Plays a central role in beta-globin locus transcription regulation by being recruited by NFE2. Plays an important role in controlling bulk H3K4me during oocyte growth and preimplantation development. Required during the transcriptionally active period of oocyte growth for the establishment and/or maintenance of bulk H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), global transcriptional silencing that preceeds resumption of meiosis, oocyte survival and normal zygotic genome activation.
Gene Name:
WBP7
Uniprot ID:
Q9UMN6
Molecular weight:
293512.14
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2). H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Key regulator of hematopoiesis involved in terminal myeloid differentiation and in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) self-renewal by a mechanism that involves DNA methylation. Plays an essential role in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis by acting as a coactivator of RAR-alpha (RARA) in target gene promoters. Also acts as an important cell cycle regulator, participating in cell cycle regulatory network machinery at multiple cell cycle stages. Required to suppress inappropriate expression of S-phase-promoting genes and maintain expression of determination genes in quiescent cells. Overexpression inhibits cell cycle progression, while knockdown induces cell cycle arrest at both the G1 and G2/M phases.
Gene Name:
MLL5
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZD2
Molecular weight:
204963.565
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase with histone H3 'Lys-27' (H3K27me) methyltransferase activity. Isoform RE-IIBP may act as a transcription regulator that binds DNA and suppresses IL5 transcription through HDAC recruitment.
Gene Name:
WHSC1
Uniprot ID:
O96028
Molecular weight:
152257.02
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-lysine-[histone] → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone]details
Protein lysine + S-Adenosylmethionine → Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6-methyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysinedetails
S-Adenosylmethionine + Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Protein N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysinedetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.