You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2006-08-12 21:14:26 UTC
Update Date2016-05-13 22:22:31 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBeta-D-Galactose
DescriptionGalactose is an optical isomer of glucose. An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl-transferase deficiency disease) causes an error in galactose metabolism called galactosemia, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood. Galactose (Gal) (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. Galactose is less sweet than glucose and not very water-soluble. Galactose is a monosaccharide constituent, together with glucose, of the disaccharide lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase, a lactase. In the human body, glucose is changed into galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose. Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis.
beta D-GalactoseHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Nameβ D-galactose
CAS Registry Number7296-64-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
StatusDetected but not Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Component of Galactose metabolism
  • Component of Globoside metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
  • Component of Keratan sulfate biosynthesis
  • Component of N-Glycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Nucleotide sugars metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility782.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0019-3900000000-3b00dcca100b6e3bb228View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-867bfd833e01f3033747View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-066r-9000000000-65a7d765a9429db38b1fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Feces
Tissue Location
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021788
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388476
KEGG Compound IDC00962
BiGG ID33945
Wikipedia LinkGAL
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03449
Metagene LinkHMDB03449
PubChem Compound439353
ChEBI ID27667
Synthesis ReferenceWolfrom, M. L.; Thompson, A.; Inatome, M. Acyl migration in the D-galactose structure. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 3868-71.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [8257730 ]
  2. Ning C, Reynolds R, Chen J, Yager C, Berry GT, McNamara PD, Leslie N, Segal S: Galactose metabolism by the mouse with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2000 Aug;48(2):211-7. [10926297 ]
  3. Rapoport EM, Nekrasov MV, Khaidukov SV, Svirshchevskaya EV, Zhigis LS, Kozlov LV, Batalova TN, Zubov VP, Bovin NV: Cellular localization of the galactose-binding lectin from human serum. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Nov;65(11):1316-20. [11112850 ]
  4. Seiler CA, Renner EL, Czerniak A, Didonna D, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Early acute cellular rejection: no effect on late hepatic allograft function in man. Transpl Int. 1999;12(3):195-201. [10429957 ]
  5. van den Nieuwenhof IM, Renardel de Lavalette C, Diaz N, van Die I, van den Berg TK: Differential galactosylation of neuronal and haematopoietic signal regulatory protein-alpha determines its cellular binding-specificity. J Cell Sci. 2001 Apr;114(Pt 7):1321-9. [11256998 ]
  6. Ono H, Mawatari H, Mizoguchi N, Eguchi T, Sakura N, Hamakawa M: Transient galactosemia detected by neonatal mass screening. Pediatr Int. 1999 Jun;41(3):281-4. [10365579 ]
  7. Niebroj-Dobosz I, Janik P, Jamrozik Z, Kwiecinski H: Immunochemical quantification of glycoconjugates in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 1999 May;6(3):335-40. [10210915 ]
  8. Schmidt LE, Ott P, Tygstrup N: Galactose elimination capacity as a prognostic marker in patients with severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: 10 years' experience. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 May;2(5):418-24. [15118981 ]
  9. Mizoguchi N, Ono H, Eguchi T, Sakura N: Galactose metabolites in blood from neonates with and without hypergalactosaemia detected by mass screening. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Nov;159(11):851-3. [11079200 ]
  10. Nakagawa F, Schulte BA, Spicer SS: Lectin cytochemical evaluation of somatosensory neurons and their peripheral and central processes in rat and man. Cell Tissue Res. 1986;245(3):579-89. [3757018 ]
  11. Hanisch FG, Heimbuchel G, Baldus SE, Uhlenbruck G, Schmits R, Pfreundschuh M, Schwonzen M, Vierbuchen M, Bara J, Peter-Katalinic J: Monoclonal antibody FW6 defines an epitope on alpha 3/4-monofucosylated polylactosaminoglycans expressed by fetal and colon carcinoma-associated mucins. Cancer Res. 1993 Sep 15;53(18):4367-75. [8364932 ]
  12. Muthusamy A, Erickson DR, Sheykhnazari M, Bhavanandan VP: Enhanced binding of modified pentosan polysulfate and heparin to bladder--a strategy for improved treatment of interstitial cystitis. Urology. 2006 Jan;67(1):209-13. [16413377 ]
  13. Furuhashi M, Suzuki S, Tomoda Y, Suganuma N: Role of the Pro-Leu-Arg motif in glycosylation of human gonadotropin alpha-subunit. Endocrinology. 1995 May;136(5):2270-5. [7536667 ]
  14. Goluboff ET, Mertz JR, Tres LL, Kierszenbaum AL: Galactosyl receptor in human testis and sperm is antigenically related to the minor C-type (Ca(2+)-dependent) lectin variant of human and rat liver. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995 Apr;40(4):460-6. [7598912 ]
  15. Kalichman MW, Powell HC, Mizisin AP: Reactive, degenerative, and proliferative Schwann cell responses in experimental galactose and human diabetic neuropathy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1998 Jan;95(1):47-56. [9452821 ]
  16. Stanley A, Osler T: Senescence and the healing rates of venous ulcers. J Vasc Surg. 2001 Jun;33(6):1206-11. [11389419 ]
  17. Wan H, Perez DR: Quail carry sialic acid receptors compatible with binding of avian and human influenza viruses. Virology. 2006 Mar 15;346(2):278-86. Epub 2005 Dec 2. [16325879 ]
  18. Puch S, Bhavanandan VP: Endogenous carbohydrate-binding proteins of rabbit and human bladder. Urology. 1999 Apr;53(4):848-52. [10197873 ]
  19. Bhavanandan VP, Puch S, Guo X, Jiang W: Galectins and other endogenous carbohydrate-binding proteins of animal bladder. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;491:95-108. [14533792 ]
  20. Chen YT, Mattison DR, Bercu BB, Schulman JD: Resistance of the male gonad to a high galactose diet. Pediatr Res. 1984 Apr;18(4):345-8. [6718090 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Beta-D-Galactose + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Galactitol + NADdetails
Beta-D-Galactose + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Galactitol + NADPdetails
General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
D-galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + N-acylsphingosinedetails
Galactosylceramide + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + N-Acylsphingosinedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
beta-Lactose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
beta-Lactose + Water → Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Lactose + Water → D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
Raffinose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Sucrosedetails
Galactosylglycerol + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Glyceroldetails
Galactinol + Water → Myoinositol + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Epimelibiose + Water → D-Mannose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Melibiitol + Water → Sorbitol + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Stachyose + Water → Raffinose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Digalactosylceramide + Water → Galactosylceramide + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Digalactosyl-diacylglycerol + Water → 1,2-Diacyl-3-beta-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
D-Gal alpha 1->6D-Gal alpha 1->6D-Glucose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Melibiosedetails
Water + Globotriaosylceramide → Beta-D-Galactose + Lactosylceramidedetails
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Not Available
beta-Lactose + Water → Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
beta-D-Galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide + Water → beta-D-Glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
D-Galactosyl-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(N-acetylneuraminyl)-D-galactosyl-D-glucosylceramide + Water → N-Acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(N-acetylneuraminyl)-D-galactosyl-D-glucosylceramide + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
GM1 + Water → GM2 + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
+ Water → + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Acts on GalNAc. Also acts as a galactokinase when galactose is present at high concentrations. May be involved in a salvage pathway for the reutilization of free GalNAc derived from the degradation of complex carbohydrates.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Galactose → ADP + Galactose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Major enzyme for galactose metabolism.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Galactose → ADP + Galactose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D- galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D- galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Acts as all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. Can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and is less active on hexoses (in vitro). May be responsible for detoxification of reactive aldehydes in the digested food before the nutrients are passed on to other organs.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Beta-D-Galactose + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Galactitol + NADdetails
Beta-D-Galactose + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Galactitol + NADPdetails