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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15151
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlyburide
DescriptionGlyburide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It belongs to the sulfonylurea class of insulin secretagogues, which act by stimulating β cells of the pancreas to release insulin. Sulfonylureas increase both basal insulin secretion and meal-stimulated insulin release. Medications in this class differ in their dose, rate of absorption, duration of action, route of elimination and binding site on their target pancreatic β cell receptor. Sulfonylureas also increase peripheral glucose utilization, decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis and may increase the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors. Sulfonylureas are associated with weight gain, though less so than insulin. Due to their mechanism of action, sulfonylureas may cause hypoglycemia and require consistent food intake to decrease this risk. The risk of hypoglycemia is increased in elderly, debilitated and malnourished individuals. Glyburide has been shown to decrease fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control). Glyburide appears to be completely metabolized, likely in the liver. Although its metabolites exert a small hypoglycemic effect, their contribution to glyburide's hypoglycemic effect is thought to be clinically unimportant. Glyburide metabolites are excreted in urine and feces in approximately equal proportions. The half-life of glyburide appears to be unaffected in those with a creatinine clearance of greater than 29 ml/min/1.73m2.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-((P-(2-(5-chloro-O-anisamido)Ethyl)phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-cyclohexylureaChEBI
1-(P-(2-(5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamido)Ethyl)benzenesulfonyl)-3-cyclohexylureaChEBI
5-chloro-N-(2-(4-((((cyclohexylamino)Carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)phenyl)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamideChEBI
DiabetaChEBI
GlibenclamidaChEBI
GlibenclamidumChEBI
GlynaseChEBI
MicronaseChEBI
1-((P-(2-(5-chloro-O-anisamido)Ethyl)phenyl)sulphonyl)-3-cyclohexylureaGenerator
1-(P-(2-(5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamido)Ethyl)benzenesulphonyl)-3-cyclohexylureaGenerator
5-chloro-N-(2-(4-((((cyclohexylamino)Carbonyl)amino)sulphonyl)phenyl)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamideGenerator
apo-GlibenclamideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H28ClN3O5S
Average Molecular Weight494.004
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight493.143819418
IUPAC Name5-chloro-N-[2-(4-{[(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide
Traditional Nameglyburide
CAS Registry Number10238-21-8
SMILES
COC1=C(C=C(Cl)C=C1)C(=O)NCCC1=CC=C(C=C1)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)NC1CCCCC1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C23H28ClN3O5S/c1-32-21-12-9-17(24)15-20(21)22(28)25-14-13-16-7-10-19(11-8-16)33(30,31)27-23(29)26-18-5-3-2-4-6-18/h7-12,15,18H,2-6,13-14H2,1H3,(H,25,28)(H2,26,27,29)
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZNNLBTZKUZBEKO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentBenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Salicylamide
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Phenethylamine
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Benzoyl
  • Anisole
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Halobenzene
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antiarrhythmic Agents
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sulfonylureas
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point169 - 170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.06e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP4.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0021 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.78ALOGPS
logP3.79ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity126.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.75 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glibenclamide PathwaySMP00460Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01016
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01016
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01016
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3368
KEGG Compound IDC07022
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlibenclamide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15151
Metagene LinkHMDB15151
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3488
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID5441
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Monami M, Luzzi C, Lamanna C, Chiasserini V, Addante F, Desideri CM, Masotti G, Marchionni N, Mannucci E: Three-year mortality in diabetic patients treated with different combinations of insulin secretagogues and metformin. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;22(6):477-82. [16634115 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
cAMP-dependent and sulfonylurea-sensitive anion transporter. Key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport
Gene Name:
ABCA1
Uniprot ID:
O95477
Molecular weight:
254299.9
References
  1. Reddy ST, Hama S, Ng C, Grijalva V, Navab M, Fogelman AM: ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 participates in LDL oxidation by artery wall cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002 Nov 1;22(11):1877-83. [12426219 ]
  2. Muhl H, Hofler S, Pfeilschifter J: Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide/ATP-induced release of interleukin-18 by KN-62 and glyburide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Dec 15;482(1-3):325-8. [14660039 ]
  3. Agassandian M, Mathur SN, Zhou J, Field FJ, Mallampalli RK: Oxysterols trigger ABCA1-mediated basolateral surfactant efflux. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;31(2):227-33. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [15039140 ]
  4. Nieland TJ, Chroni A, Fitzgerald ML, Maliga Z, Zannis VI, Kirchhausen T, Krieger M: Cross-inhibition of SR-BI- and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol transport by the small molecules BLT-4 and glyburide. J Lipid Res. 2004 Jul;45(7):1256-65. Epub 2004 Apr 21. [15102890 ]
  5. Alder-Baerens N, Muller P, Pohl A, Korte T, Hamon Y, Chimini G, Pomorski T, Herrmann A: Headgroup-specific exposure of phospholipids in ABCA1-expressing cells. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 15;280(28):26321-9. Epub 2005 May 19. [15905177 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the transport of chloride ions. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the SLC4A7 transporter. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1.
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P13569
Molecular weight:
168139.895
References
  1. Reddy MM, Quinton PM: Effect of anion transport blockers on CFTR in the human sweat duct. J Membr Biol. 2002 Sep 1;189(1):15-25. [12202948 ]
  2. Jiang J, Song Y, Bai C, Koller BH, Matthay MA, Verkman AS: Pleural surface fluorescence measurement of Na+ and Cl- transport across the air space-capillary barrier. J Appl Physiol. 2003 Jan;94(1):343-52. Epub 2002 Aug 30. [12391048 ]
  3. Zhou Z, Hu S, Hwang TC: Probing an open CFTR pore with organic anion blockers. J Gen Physiol. 2002 Nov;120(5):647-62. [12407077 ]
  4. Larsen EH, Amstrup J, Willumsen NJ: Beta-adrenergic receptors couple to CFTR chloride channels of intercalated mitochondria-rich cells in the heterocellular toad skin epithelium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Dec 30;1618(2):140-52. [14729151 ]
  5. Lee SY, Lee CO: Inhibition of Na+-K+ pump and L-type Ca2+ channel by glibenclamide in Guinea pig ventricular myocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jan;312(1):61-8. Epub 2004 Sep 13. [15365090 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular weight:
44794.6
References
  1. Pondugula SR, Raveendran NN, Ergonul Z, Deng Y, Chen J, Sanneman JD, Palmer LG, Marcus DC: Glucocorticoid regulation of genes in the amiloride-sensitive sodium transport pathway by semicircular canal duct epithelium of neonatal rat. Physiol Genomics. 2006 Jan 12;24(2):114-23. Epub 2005 Nov 1. [16263802 ]
  2. Lu M, Leng Q, Egan ME, Caplan MJ, Boulpaep EL, Giebisch GH, Hebert SC: CFTR is required for PKA-regulated ATP sensitivity of Kir1.1 potassium channels in mouse kidney. J Clin Invest. 2006 Mar;116(3):797-807. Epub 2006 Feb 9. [16470247 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ11
Uniprot ID:
Q14654
Molecular weight:
43540.4
References
  1. Hambrock A, Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Glibenclamide binding to sulphonylurea receptor subtypes: dependence on adenine nucleotides. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Aug;136(7):995-1004. [12145099 ]
  2. Nielsen FE, Bodvarsdottir TB, Worsaae A, MacKay P, Stidsen CE, Boonen HC, Pridal L, Arkhammar PO, Wahl P, Ynddal L, Junager F, Dragsted N, Tagmose TM, Mogensen JP, Koch A, Treppendahl SP, Hansen JB: 6-Chloro-3-alkylamino-4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives potently and selectively activate ATP sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic beta-cells. J Med Chem. 2002 Sep 12;45(19):4171-87. [12213059 ]
  3. Gojkovic-Bukarica L, Hambrock A, Loffler-Walz C, Quast U, Russ U: Mg2+ sensitizes KATP channels to inhibition by DIDS: dependence on the sulphonylurea receptor subunit. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(4):429-40. [12359624 ]
  4. Ball AJ, McCluskey JT, Flatt PR, McClenaghan NH: Chronic exposure to tolbutamide and glibenclamide impairs insulin secretion but not transcription of K(ATP) channel components. Pharmacol Res. 2004 Jul;50(1):41-6. [15082027 ]
  5. Lim JG, Lee HY, Yun JE, Kim SP, Park JW, Suh SI, Jang BC, Cho CH, Bae JH, Kim SS, Han J, Park MJ, Song DK: Taurine block of cloned ATP-sensitive K+ channels with different sulfonylurea receptor subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Sep 1;68(5):901-10. [15294453 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by external barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ5
Uniprot ID:
P48544
Molecular weight:
47667.3
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Putative subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP). Regulator of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and insulin release
Gene Name:
ABCC8
Uniprot ID:
Q09428
Molecular weight:
177006.4
References
  1. Dabrowski M, Ashcroft FM, Ashfield R, Lebrun P, Pirotte B, Egebjerg J, Bondo Hansen J, Wahl P: The novel diazoxide analog 3-isopropylamino-7-methoxy-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide is a selective Kir6.2/SUR1 channel opener. Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1896-906. [12031979 ]
  2. Hambrock A, Preisig-Muller R, Russ U, Piehl A, Hanley PJ, Ray J, Daut J, Quast U, Derst C: Four novel splice variants of sulfonylurea receptor 1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):C587-98. [12107069 ]
  3. Hambrock A, Loffler-Walz C, Quast U: Glibenclamide binding to sulphonylurea receptor subtypes: dependence on adenine nucleotides. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Aug;136(7):995-1004. [12145099 ]
  4. Nielsen FE, Bodvarsdottir TB, Worsaae A, MacKay P, Stidsen CE, Boonen HC, Pridal L, Arkhammar PO, Wahl P, Ynddal L, Junager F, Dragsted N, Tagmose TM, Mogensen JP, Koch A, Treppendahl SP, Hansen JB: 6-Chloro-3-alkylamino-4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives potently and selectively activate ATP sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic beta-cells. J Med Chem. 2002 Sep 12;45(19):4171-87. [12213059 ]
  5. Babenko AP, Bryan J: SUR-dependent modulation of KATP channels by an N-terminal KIR6.2 peptide. Defining intersubunit gating interactions. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 15;277(46):43997-4004. Epub 2002 Sep 3. [12213829 ]
  6. Ueda K, Komine J, Matsuo M, Seino S, Amachi T: Cooperative binding of ATP and MgADP in the sulfonylurea receptor is modulated by glibenclamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 16;96(4):1268-72. [9990013 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular weight:
174205.6
References
  1. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [16460798 ]
  2. Payen L, Delugin L, Courtois A, Trinquart Y, Guillouzo A, Fardel O: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide inhibits multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) activity in human lung cancer cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;132(3):778-84. [11159731 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Payen L, Delugin L, Courtois A, Trinquart Y, Guillouzo A, Fardel O: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide inhibits multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) activity in human lung cancer cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;132(3):778-84. [11159731 ]
  2. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [16460798 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular weight:
76697.9
References
  1. Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):518-23. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [15640378 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
References
  1. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [16460798 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular weight:
146405.8
References
  1. Byrne JA, Strautnieks SS, Mieli-Vergani G, Higgins CF, Linton KJ, Thompson RJ: The human bile salt export pump: characterization of substrate specificity and identification of inhibitors. Gastroenterology. 2002 Nov;123(5):1649-58. [12404239 ]
  2. Kemp DC, Brouwer KL: Viability assessment in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes after xenobiotic exposure. Toxicol In Vitro. 2004 Dec;18(6):869-77. [15465654 ]
  3. Horikawa M, Kato Y, Tyson CA, Sugiyama Y: Potential cholestatic activity of various therapeutic agents assessed by bile canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from rats and humans. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2003;18(1):16-22. [15618715 ]
  4. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [12739759 ]
  5. Noe J, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, St-Pierre MV: Characterization of the mouse bile salt export pump overexpressed in the baculovirus system. Hepatology. 2001 May;33(5):1223-31. [11343252 ]
  6. Funk C, Pantze M, Jehle L, Ponelle C, Scheuermann G, Lazendic M, Gasser R: Troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis by an interference with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids in male and female rats. Correlation with the gender difference in troglitazone sulfate formation and the inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) by troglitazone and troglitazone sulfate. Toxicology. 2001 Oct 5;167(1):83-98. [11557132 ]
  7. Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ: Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):422-30. [10648470 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Golstein PE, Boom A, van Geffel J, Jacobs P, Masereel B, Beauwens R: P-glycoprotein inhibition by glibenclamide and related compounds. Pflugers Arch. 1999 Apr;437(5):652-60. [10087141 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [16460798 ]
  2. Pollex EK, Anger G, Hutson J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated glyburide transport: effect of the C421A/Q141K BCRP single-nucleotide polymorphism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 May;38(5):740-4. Epub 2010 Feb 16. [20159988 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [11883641 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Sawada K, Terada T, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Effects of glibenclamide on glycylsarcosine transport by the rat peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;128(6):1159-64. [10578127 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Sawada K, Terada T, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Effects of glibenclamide on glycylsarcosine transport by the rat peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;128(6):1159-64. [10578127 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of anti-diabetic agents on rat organic anion transporter rOAT1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 16;398(2):193-7. [10854830 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Morita N, Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 2 in LLC-PK1 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Sep;298(3):1179-84. [11504818 ]